Map of Ancient Georgian States (600-150 BCE)
Map showing the ancient states in the western Caucasus (modern-day Georgia) from c. 600 BCE to 150 BCE.
Iberian Falcata Sword
An Iberian falcata sword, 399-200 BCE. (National Archeological Museum of Spain, Madrid)
Map of the Iberian Penninsula in 125 AD
A map showing Iberian peninsula in 125 AD including important roads, locations of legions and gold (Au) and silver (Ag) mines.
Bronze Age Helmet
Bronze Age golden helmet found in Leiro, Galicia (modern-day Spain). Museo de San Antón, A Coruña.
Acropolis & Theatre of Saguntum
The fortified acropolis and theatre of the Iberian-Roman town of Saguntum (Sagunto), Spain. Fortified since the 5th century BCE, the walls today date to the 11th century CE with later additions. The restored theatre dates to the 1st century...
Iberian Bull Sculpture
Iberian-Celtic bull sculpture from Saguntum (Sagunto), Spain. 4th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Sagunto)
City Gate, Empuries
A gate in the Roman wall of Empuries, Spain. 1st century BCE. The base of the wall was made using calcareous rock while the upper portion is of Roman concrete (opus caementicium).
Iberian Funeral Stela
An Iberian funeral stela from Empuries. The design shows a a coiled iron spear or soliferreum, an action which was customary on burial. 6th century BCE. (Archaeological Museum, Empuries, Spain)
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by popes and Christian western powers to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control and then defend those gains. There were eight major official crusades between 1095...
Carthaginian warfare has been overshadowed by defeat to Rome in the Punic Wars, but for six centuries before that Carthage was remarkably successful in conquering lucrative territories in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Sicily. By...