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Seventh Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE) was led by the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE) who intended to conquer Egypt and take over Jerusalem, both then controlled by the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty. Despite the initial success of capturing Damietta...
Knights Templar
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar were established c. 1119 and given papal recognition in 1129. It was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life to defend Christian holy sites and pilgrims in the Middle...
Northern Crusades, 1260-1410 CE
Imageby S.Bollmann

Northern Crusades, 1260-1410 CE

A map indicating the territories controlled by the Teutonic Knights military order and their Crusades against pagan Europeans in the 13th and 14th century CE.
Third Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of 'the Kings' Crusade'. The three leaders were...
The Crusades: A Brief History of the Medieval Religious Wars
Videoby Kelly Macquire

The Crusades: A Brief History of the Medieval Religious Wars

This video will give you a brief, yet detailed history of the Medieval religious wars known as the Crusades, beginning at the first crusade with the people's crusade led by Peter the Hermit, and working our way to the final official crusade...
Battle of Hattin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
Fifth Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Fifth Crusade

The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) with the objective, like previous crusades, of recapturing Jerusalem from Muslim control; only this time the strategy was to weaken the enemy by first attacking...
The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE

The Siege of Acre in 1291 CE was the final fatal blow to Christian Crusader ambitions in the Holy Land. Acre had always been the most important Christian-held port in the Levant, but when it finally fell on 18 May 1291 CE to the armies of...
Zengids & the Crusaders: Race for Egypt (1163-1169 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Zengids & the Crusaders: Race for Egypt (1163-1169 CE)

In the aftermath of the failure of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE), which only managed to bring Damascus under Nur ad-Din's (sometimes also given as Nur al-Din, l. 1118-1174 CE) dominion, Egypt acquired top priority – both from a...
Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE
Articleby Amin Nasr

Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE

The Battle of Marj Ayyun was a military confrontation fought near the Litani River (modern-day Lebanon) in June 1179 CE between the Christian Crusaders under the leadership of the king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185 CE) and the Muslim...