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Nehushtan
Definitionby April Lynn Downey

Nehushtan

According to the Bible, Nehushtan was a metal serpent mounted on a staff that Moses had made, by God's command, to cure the Israelites of snake bites while wandering in the desert. The symbol of snakes on a staff or pole is a motif that is...
Jörmungandr
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jörmungandr

Jörmungandr is the Midgard Serpent (also World Serpent) in Norse mythology who encircles the realm of Midgard. He is the son of the god Loki and the giantess Angrboða and brother of the great wolf Fenrir and Hel, Queen of the Dead. At Ragnarök...
Egyptian Gods - The Complete List
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Gods - The Complete List

The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people's everyday lives. It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these deities' names are well known: Isis, Osiris...
Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia

In ancient Mesopotamia, the gods infused every aspect of daily life and this, of course, extended to health care. The goddess Gula (also known as Ninkarrak and Ninisinna) presided over health and healing aided by her consort Pabilsag (who...
A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine

The English word 'veterinarian' as defining one who provides medical care to animals, comes from the Latin verb veheri meaning “to draw” (as in "pull") and was first applied to those who cared for “any animal that...
Laocoön: The Suffering of a Trojan Priest & Its Afterlife
Articleby Cindy Meijer

Laocoön: The Suffering of a Trojan Priest & Its Afterlife

The sculpture group of Laocoön and His Sons, on display in the Vatican since its rediscovery in 1506 CE, depicts the suffering of the Trojan prince and priest Laocoön (brother of Anchises) and his young sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus...
Setna I: A Detailed Summary & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Setna I: A Detailed Summary & Commentary

Setna I (also Setna Khaemaus and the Mummies) is a work of ancient Egyptian literature from the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE) written in demotic script. It is part of a cycle of stories known as the Tales of Prince Setna featuring a character...
Mesopotamian Science and Technology
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Science and Technology

Mesopotamian science and technology developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic Period (2900-1750 BCE) of the Sumerian culture of southern Mesopotamia. The foundation of future Mesopotamian advances in scientific/technological...
Chichen Itza
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, located at the northern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula of modern Mexico, was a Maya city which was later significantly influenced by the Toltec civilization. Flourishing between c. 750 and 1200 CE, the site is rich in monumental...
Gula
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Gula

Gula (also known as Ninkarrak) is the Babylonian goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, healing arts, and medical practices. She is first attested to in the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) where she is referenced as a great goddess of...