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French Wars of Religion
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) were a series of eight conflicts between Protestant and Catholic factions in France lasting 36 years and concluding with the Protestant King Henry IV (r. 1589-1610) converting to Catholicism in the...
Jeanne d'Albret
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne d’Albret (Joan III of Navarre, l. 1528-1572) was Queen of Navarre, daughter of Marguerite de Navarre (l. 1492-1549) and niece of King Francois I (Francis I of France, r. 1515-1547). She is best known for leading the Huguenots (French...
Pope Joan
Definitionby Peter Kauffner

Pope Joan

Pope Joan was a legendary female pope of the Middle Ages said to have reigned from 855 to 858. After her story was popularized by Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), a statue of her was placed alongside those of other popes at...
Marguerite de Navarre
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Marguerite de Navarre

Marguerite de Navarre (l. 1492-1549) was a writer, philosopher, diplomat, and Queen of Navarre, sister of King Francois I (Francis I of France, r. 1515-1547), mother of Jeanne d’Albret (l. 1528-1572) and grandmother of Henry IV of France...
Storming of the Bastille
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Storming of the Bastille

The Storming of the Bastille was a decisive moment in the early months of the French Revolution (1789-1799). On 14 July 1789, the Bastille, a fortress and political prison symbolizing the oppressiveness of France’s Ancien Régime was attacked...
Olympia Fulvia Morata
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Olympia Fulvia Morata

Olympia Fulvia Morata (l. 1526-1555, also given as Olimpia) was an Italian scholar, poet, and writer who sought to advance the Protestant Reformation in Italy. She was considered one of the greatest classical scholars of her time but was...
Thanatos
Definitionby Liana Miate

Thanatos

Thanatos is the personification of Death in Greek mythology. He is the son of Nyx (Night) and the twin brother of Hypnos (Sleep). Some sources also name Erebus (Darkness) as his father. As the personification of Death, Thanatos works under...
Knights' Revolt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Knights' Revolt

The Knight’s Revolt (1522-1523) was a military action led by the German imperial knight Franz von Sickingen (l. 1481-1523) and encouraged by the knight and writer Ulrich von Hutten (l. 1488-1523) launched to restore the status of the imperial...
Argead Dynasty
Definitionby Athanasios Fountoukis

Argead Dynasty

The Argead dynasty, the ancient Macedonian house of Dorian Greek origin, lasted from the 7th century to 310 BCE. The mythological founder of the dynasty was King Caranus but it was under Philip II of Macedon (382-226 BCE) that the Macedonian...
Estates-General of 1789
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Estates-General of 1789

The Estates-General of 1789 was a meeting of the three estates of pre-revolutionary France: clergy, nobility, and commons. Summoned by King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) to deal with financial and societal crises, it ended with the Third...
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