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Tokugawa Iemitsu
Definitionby Graham Squires

Tokugawa Iemitsu

Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-1651) governed Japan as the third shogun of the Edo period. He implemented a number of important policies that not only consolidated his family's hold on power but also greatly impacted Japanese society for several...
Mary II of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mary II of England

Mary II of England (r. 1689-1694) ruled jointly with her husband William III of England (r. 1689-1702) until her death from smallpox. While William suffered a xenophobic reaction to his rule, Mary represented the continuity of the Royal House...
Croesus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Croesus

Croesus (r. 560-546 BCE) was the King of Lydia, a region in western Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) and was so wealthy that the expression "as rich as Croesus" originates in reference to him. Best known for his wealth, he is also famous for...
Declaration of Pillnitz
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Declaration of Pillnitz

The Declaration of Pillnitz was a joint statement issued on 27 August 1791 by Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1790-1792) and King Frederick William II of Prussia (r. 1786-1797). The declaration appealed to all European powers to unite...
Glorious Revolution
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 saw Protestant William of Orange (l. 1650-1702) invade England and take the throne of Catholic James II of England (r. 1685-1688). There were no battles, and William was invited by Parliament to become...
Pergamon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Pergamon

Pergamon (also Pergamum) was a major intellectual and cultural center in Mysia (northwest Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) which flourished under the Attalid Dynasty (281-133 BCE) during the Hellenistic Period. It was the capital of the Kingdom...
Champ de Mars Massacre
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Champ de Mars Massacre

The Champ de Mars Massacre was an incident that took place on 17 July 1791, when soldiers of the National Guard under the Marquis de Lafayette opened fire on a crowd of demonstrators, who were calling for a referendum on the king's abdication...
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748-1836), commonly known as Abbé Sieyès, was a French clergyman and political writer, who became a leading voice in the Third Estate during the French Revolution (1789-99). Sieyès played instrumental roles in both...
Monmouth Rebellion
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Monmouth Rebellion

The Monmouth Rebellion of June-July 1685 involved James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (1649-1685), illegitimate son of Charles II of England (r. 1660-1685), attempting to take the throne of his uncle James II of England (r. 1685-1688). Monmouth's...
Marquis de Condorcet
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Marquis de Condorcet

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), also known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, political theorist, and mathematician. His ideas, encompassing a wide range of topics from education to...
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