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Columbian Exchange
Definitionby John Horgan

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian exchange is a term coined by Alfred Crosby Jr. in 1972 that is traditionally defined as the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World of Europe and Africa and the New World of the Americas. The exchange...
Great Fear
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Great Fear

The Great Fear (French: la Grande Peur) was a wave of panic that swept the French countryside in late July and early August 1789. Fearful of plots by aristocrats to undermine the budding French Revolution (1789-1799), peasants and townspeople...
Taifa
Definitionby Ian Abbey

Taifa

Taifas ("factions" or "camps") were small independent Muslim kingdoms and principalities that emerged after the fall of hegemonic Muslim caliphates in al-Andalus – the Muslim-controlled part of the Iberian peninsula – during the High Middle...
Gustave Caillebotte
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894) was a French impressionist painter noted for his draughtsmanship and flair for capturing perspective. He was particularly fond of scenes showing people at balconies and admiring views, often with a rigorous...
Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings
Definitionby Pegah Eidipour

Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings

Rose-and-nightingale paintings and patterns (gul-u-bulbul) are a subtheme of the bird-flower (gul-u-morḡ) genre in Persian art. Bird-and-flower paintings are of Chinese origin and include pictorial elements such as flowers and plants, birds...
Crucifixion
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Crucifixion

Crucifixion as a punishment was practiced by several ancient cultures, but most notably adopted by the Roman Republic and later Roman Empire. Crucifixion was a method of hanging or suspending someone on the combination of vertical and horizontal...
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) was a French impressionist painter. Capable of painting in many different styles, even in the same painting, Renoir was certainly prolific, creating over 6,000 paintings in a long career. He had a preference...
Paul Gauguin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Paul Gauguin

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) was a French neo-impressionist painter whose vivid paintings with their flat, bold colours and use of mystical and ambiguous symbols revolutionised art. Never quite gaining success in his own lifetime...
French Wars of Religion
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) were a series of eight conflicts between Protestant and Catholic factions in France lasting 36 years and concluding with the Protestant King Henry IV (r. 1589-1610) converting to Catholicism in the...
Jeanne d'Albret
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne d’Albret (Joan III of Navarre, l. 1528-1572) was Queen of Navarre, daughter of Marguerite de Navarre (l. 1492-1549) and niece of King Francois I (Francis I of France, r. 1515-1547). She is best known for leading the Huguenots (French...
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