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Heraclius
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Heraclius

Heraclius (Herakleios) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641 CE. He crushed the Persian empire and returned the looted True Cross to Jerusalem, but the second half of his reign was beset by intrigues and ecclesiastical controversies...
Themis
Definitionby Liana Miate

Themis

Themis is the personification and goddess of divine law, will, and justice in Greek mythology. She was held in high esteem by the Olympians, often sitting by Zeus' throne and giving him wise counsel. Themis held the place of Oracle at Delphi...
Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (l. 1747-1793) was a French noble of royal blood. He was the head of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the royal Bourbon dynasty, and was a cousin of King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792). Despite...
Great Exhibition
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Great Exhibition

The 1851 Great Exhibition was held in the purpose-built Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, to showcase the latest developments in engineering, science, and the arts, as well as objects of cultural significance from Britain and abroad. Running...
Louis XVII of France
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Louis XVII of France

Louis XVII of France was the regnal name of Louis-Charles de France (l. 1785-1795), the younger son of King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) and Queen Marie Antoinette (l. 1755-1793). Although Louis-Charles never actually reigned as king...
Queen Victoria
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria of Great Britain (r. 1837-1901) was one of the most loved of all Britain's monarchs. Her longevity, devotion to her role as figurehead of an empire, and recovery from the death of her beloved husband Prince Albert won her a...
Script
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Script

Script is the written expression of a language. Cuneiform, the first script, was invented in Sumer, Mesopotamia c. 3500 BCE, hieroglyphics sometime prior to the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150-2613 BCE), and Sanskrit in India during...
Thetis
Definitionby Liana Miate

Thetis

Thetis is one of 50 Nereids (sea nymphs) and a goddess of the sea in Greek mythology. Thetis is best known for being the mother of the Greek hero Achilles, however, her role goes beyond that; she appears in various stories and interacts with...
William IV of Great Britain
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William IV of Great Britain

William IV of Great Britain (r. 1830-1837) succeeded his elder brother George IV of Great Britain (r. 1820-1830) to become the fifth Hanoverian monarch. William had a successful naval career, and his reign is best remembered for the democratic...
French Directory
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

French Directory

The French Directory, or Directorate (French: le Directoire), was the government of France from 2 November 1795 until 9 November 1799, a period that spanned the last four years of the French Revolution (1789-1799). The Directory was unpopular...
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