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Martin Bucer
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Martin Bucer

Martin Bucer (l. 1491-1551) was a German reformer and theologian who had been a Dominican friar and priest until converted to the Protestant vision by Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) c. 1518. Bucer is best known for his focus on unity among...
Helena of Constantinople
Definitionby Jéssica da Costa Minati Moraes

Helena of Constantinople

Saint Helena of Constantinople (248/250-328 CE) was the mother of Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE). She famously made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where tradition claims found Christ's true cross and built the Basilica of the Holy...
Andreas Karlstadt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Andreas Karlstadt

Andreas Karlstadt (also given as Carlstadt, l. 1486-1541) was a reformer, theologian, and early supporter of Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) in the movement that became known as the Protestant Reformation. Karlstadt was one of Luther's most...
Philolaus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Philolaus

Philolaus (l. c. 470 to c. 385 BCE) was a Pythagorean philosopher who claimed that fire was the first cause of existence and heat the underlying source of human life. He is best known for his pyrocentric model of the universe, which replaced...
Katharina Zell
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Katharina Zell

Katharina Zell (also known as Katharina Schütz, Katharina Schütz-Zell, l. 1497-1562) was a reformer, theologian, and prolific writer in Strasbourg who helped establish the basic tenets of the Protestant Reformation without advancing sectarian...
Revolt of the Parlements
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Revolt of the Parlements

The Revolt of the Parlements of 1787-1788, was the climax of a power struggle between the royal authority of King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) and the Parlement of Paris, the most powerful of France's thirteen parlements, or high judicial...
Archelaus (Philosopher)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Archelaus (Philosopher)

Archelaus of Athens (l. c. 5th century BCE) was a Pre-Socratic philosopher in ancient Greece who claimed the first cause of existence was the opposition of cold and heat which caused the separation of the universal essence to produce a plurality...
Camille Pissarro
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Camille Pissarro

Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) was an impressionist painter based in France who focussed on landscapes but frequently changed his style and subjects. He was an instrumental figure in the new art movement of the 19th century, organising independent...
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 

In the 2nd century CE, as Christianity was in the process of becoming an independent religion, a body of literature emerged that scholars classify as apocrypha and pseudepigrapha. Apocrypha (Greek: apokryptein, "to hide away") are those books...
Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
Definitionby Harrison W. Mark

Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau (l. 1749-1791) was a French orator and nobleman who rose to prominence as a leader during the early stages of the French Revolution (1789-1799). From the disgraced and scandalized son of a distinguished...
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