Umar

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Definition

Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644 CE) was the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE, as the first four caliphs are referred to by the Sunni Muslims). He was an early convert of Islam and one of the close companions of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE). After the death of Muhammad, he gave his utmost and loyal support to Abu Bakr, who then became the first caliph. After Abu Bakr's death in 634 CE, Umar became the next caliph – he continued his predecessor's campaigns and extended his dominion further from the Arabian Peninsula. In addition to multiple military successes, his reign was marked with marvels in administration. After his death, he was succeeded by Uthman ibn Affan (l. 579-656 CE) as the third ruler of the Rashidun Caliphate.

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