Hellenic World


'The Hellenic World' is a term which refers to that period of ancient Greek history between 507 BCE (the date of the first democracy in Athens) and 323 BCE (the death of Alexander the Great). This period is also referred to as the age of Classical Greece.

More about: Hellenic World


  • 11 Sep 490 BCE
    A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
  • c. 483 BCE
    Themistocles persuades the Athenians to significantly expand their fleet, which saves them at Salamis and becomes their source of power.
  • Aug 480 BCE
    The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
  • Aug 480 BCE
    Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
  • Sep 480 BCE
    Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
  • 479 BCE
    Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
  • c. 469 BCE - 399 BCE
    Life of Socrates.
  • c. 449 BCE
    Peace is agreed on by Athens and Persia, sometimes referred to as the Peace of Callias.
  • 447 BCE - 432 BCE
    The construction of the Parthenon in Athens by the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates under the direction of Phidias.
  • c. 445 BCE
    Leucippus of Abdera, the philosopher, is said to have conceived of the atomic universe. His pupil is Democritus.
  • 440 BCE
    The sophist Protagoras of Abdera, claiming 'man is the measure of all things', visits Athens.
  • 431 BCE - 404 BCE
    The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
  • 431 BCE
    The playwright Euripides publishes his Medea.
  • 430 BCE
    The plague decimates Athens.
  • 429 BCE
    The death of Pericles from the plague.
  • c. 424 BCE - 423 BCE
    Plato is born at Athens, Greece.
  • 404 BCE
    End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
  • 403 BCE
    Restoration of the democracy in Athens, death of the tyrant Critias.
  • 401 BCE
    Retreat from Persia of Xenophon and the ten thousand mercenaries.
  • 399 BCE
    Trial and death of the philosopher Socrates, who taught in the court of the Agora.
  • 384 BCE
    Birth of the philosopher Aristotle, tutor to Alexander the Great, in Stagira (Greece).
  • 380 BCE
    Plato founds his Academy outside of Athens.
  • 21 Jul 356 BCE - 11 Jun 323 BCE
    Life of Alexander the Great.
  • 2 Aug 338 BCE
    The Battle of Charonea gives Athens to the Macedonian victors. Agora takes on Macedonian characteristics.
  • 336 BCE - 323 BCE
    Reign of Alexander the Great.
  • 334 BCE - 323 BCE
    Campaigns of Alexander the Great.
  • 330 BCE - 64 BCE
    Hellenistic Period in Byblos.
  • 323 BCE
    Death of Alexander the Great, beginning of The Hellenistic Period / The Hellenistic World.