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Battle of Salamis
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Salamis

The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle between Greek and Persian forces in the Saronic Gulf, Greece in September 480 BCE. The Greeks had recently lost the Battle of Thermopylae and drawn the naval Battle at Artemision, both in August 480...
The Greek Strategy at the Battle of Salamis 480 BCE
Articleby Antonis Mistriotis

The Greek Strategy at the Battle of Salamis 480 BCE

The history of the second Persian war as presented in most of the modern literature is solely based on Herodotus' Histories. However, Herodotus' narration seems to contain several unrealistic elements which raise doubts about the actual strategy...
Artemisia I of Caria
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Artemisia I of Caria

Artemisia of Caria (also known as Artemisia I) was the queen of the Anatolian region of Caria (south of ancient Lydia, in modern-day Turkey). She is most famous for her role in the naval Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE in which she fought...
Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide
Articleby Carole Raddato

Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide

Lying at the crossroads of the eastern Mediterranean, the island of Cyprus has long been a meeting point for many of the world's great civilizations. Situated where Europe, Asia and Africa meet, its location shaped its history of bringing...
Xerxes I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Xerxes I

Xerxes I (l. 519-465, r. 486-465 BCE), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. His official title was Shahanshah which, though usually translated as `emperor', actually means `king of kings'. He...
Themistocles
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Themistocles

Themistocles (c. 524 - c. 460 BCE) was an Athenian statesman and general (strategos) whose emphasis on naval power and military skills were instrumental during the Persian wars, victory in which ensured that Greece survived its greatest ever...
Aristides
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Aristides

Aristides (520s – c. 467 BCE) was an Athenian statesman and military commander who gained the honorific title 'the Just' through his consistent selfless behaviour in public office. Although ostracized by the Athenian assembly, Aristides...
Battle of Marathon
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Marathon

The Battle on the plain of Marathon in September 490 BCE between Greeks and the invading forces of Persian king Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE) was a victory that would go down in folklore as the moment the Greek city-states showed the world their...
The Gymnasium of Salamis, Cyprus
Imageby Carole Raddato

The Gymnasium of Salamis, Cyprus

The Gymnasium of Salamis in Cyprus, with its columned palaestra, was built over the ruins of an earlier Hellenistic gymnasium in the 2nd century CE during Trajan and Hadrian's reign after Salamis had been greatly damaged in 116 CE during...
Trireme
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Trireme

Fast, manoeuvrable, and with a bronze-sheathed ram on the prow, the trireme (Greek triērēs) was the devastating warship which permitted Athens to build its maritime empire and dominate the Aegean in the 5th century BCE. Most scholars credit...