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Legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, & Arabia
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, & Arabia

As the Roman Empire expanded further eastward, annexing territories that were once the domain of the Parthians, the legions of Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, and Arabia were called upon to safeguard these newly acquired territories. Mesopotamia...
Ark of the Covenant
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Ark of the Covenant

The Ark of the Covenant refers to the box-like container that held the tablets of the Law received by Moses on Mount Sinai. Tradition claimed that it contained two stone tablets, carved by God, listing the first ten commandments given to...
Roman Sculpture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Sculpture

Roman sculpture blended the idealised perfection of Classical Greek sculpture with a greater aspiration for realism. It also absorbed artistic preferences and styles from the East to create images in stone and bronze which rank among the...
Roman Siege Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified city or military camp, siege warfare became a necessity, despite its high expense in money...
Nerva
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Nerva

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was Roman emperor from 96 to 98 CE, and his reign brought stability after the turbulent successions of his predecessors. In addition, Nerva helped establish the foundations for a new golden era for Rome which his chosen...
Didius Julianus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Didius Julianus

Didius Julianus was Roman emperor from March to June 193 CE. On March 28, 193 CE Roman Emperor Pertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, and like his predecessor Commodus, he left no apparent successor. Two possible claimants presented...
Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity

During the 1st century CE, a sect of Jews in Jerusalem claimed that their teacher, Jesus of Nazareth, was the 'messiah' of Israel. 'Messiah' meant 'anointed one', or someone chosen by the God of Israel to lead when God would intervene in...
Josephus on Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Josephus on Christianity

Titus Flavius Josephus (36-100 CE), the Jewish historian, is the main source for understanding Second Temple Judaism in the 1st century CE. In the last decades of the 1st century CE, he wrote The Jewish War, the Antiquities of the Jews, Against...
Hubmaier's Concerning Heretics and Those Who Burn Them
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Hubmaier's Concerning Heretics and Those Who Burn Them

Balthasar Hubmaier (l. 1480-1528) was a Catholic theologian who converted to the Protestant Anabaptist sect in 1525. His Concerning Heretics and Those Who Burn Them (1524) was a plea for religious tolerance written prior to his conversion...
Exploring Western Crete's Archaeological Treasures
Articleby Carole Raddato

Exploring Western Crete's Archaeological Treasures

As the cradle of European Civilization and a meeting place of diverse cultures, Crete is a magical island that stands apart in the heart of the Mediterranean sea. Its prominent place in world history dates back to the mysterious and fascinating...
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