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Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors
Image Galleryby Arienne King

Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors

A series of facial reconstructions of Roman emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE), including the Gordian Emperors. These so-called "Barracks emperors" seized power during a time of turmoil, and their reigns...
Roman Law
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Law

Roman laws covered all facets of daily life. They were concerned with crime and punishment, land and property ownership, commerce, the maritime and agricultural industries, citizenship, sexuality and prostitution, slavery and manumission...
Roman Architecture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Architecture

Roman architecture continued the legacy left by Greek architects and the established architectural orders, especially the Corinthian. The Romans were also innovators and they combined new construction techniques and materials with creative...
Emperor Taizu of Song
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Taizu of Song

Emperor Taizu (960-976 CE), formerly known as Zhao Kuangyin, was the founder of the Song (aka Sung) dynasty which ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE. Taizu settled for a territorially smaller but more unified and prosperous China than was seen...
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Wuzong of Tang

Wuzong of Tang (also Wu-Tsung, formerly Li Yan) reigned as emperor of China from 840 to 846 CE. He is best remembered today for his persecution of Buddhists, the worst such attack in all of China's history, and his early death by insanity...
Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE

It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). During this time of almost 50 years, over...
The Crisis of the Third Century
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Crisis of the Third Century

The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE) was the period in the history of the Roman Empire during which it splintered into three separate political entities: the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire, and...
Alexander Severus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Alexander Severus

Alexander Severus served as the Roman emperor from 222 CE until his untimely death in 235 CE. At the urging of his mother, aunt, and grandmother, Emperor Elagabalus named his cousin Alexianus (the future Alexander Severus) as his heir in...
Roman Artillery
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Artillery

Roman artillery weapons were instrumental in the successes of the Roman army over centuries and were especially used in siege warfare, both for offence and defence. Principally used in fixed positions or onboard ships, these machines, known...
Caligula
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Caligula

Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE. Among the great emperors of the Roman Empire stand Augustus and Marcus Aurelius. At the other end of the spectrum is Emperor Caligula who the historian...