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Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Arsinoe II Philadelphus

Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Empire of Nicaea
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea was a successor state to the Byzantine Empire, or rather a Byzantine Empire in exile lasting from 1204 to 1261 CE. The Empire of Nicaea was founded in the aftermath of the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade...
Ptolemaic Dynasty in Ancient Egypt
Lesson by Patrick Goodman

Ptolemaic Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

We have prepared one lesson plan including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays Recommended resources to provide you and your students with...
Cleopatra
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cleopatra

Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE, r. 51-30 BCE) was the last ruler of Egypt before it was annexed as a province of Rome. Although arguably the most famous Egyptian queen, Cleopatra was actually Greek and a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30...
Berenice II Euergetis
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Berenice II Euergetis

Berenice II Euergetis (c. 267-221 BCE) was a pre-eminent Hellenistic queen, who ruled together with her husband Ptolemy III (r. 246-221 BCE), when the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power, dominating most of the eastern Mediterranean...
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) was the final stage of the Assyrian Empire, stretching throughout Mesopotamia, the Levant, Egypt, Anatolia, and into parts of Persia and Arabia. Beginning with the reign of Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE...
Assyria
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Assyria

Assyria was the region located in the ancient Near East which, under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, reached from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) through Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and down through Egypt. The empire began modestly at the city of Ashur...
Empire of Trebizond
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond was an offshoot of the Byzantine Empire that existed from 1204 to 1461 CE, ruled by the Megas Komnenos Dynasty, descendants of the Komenos Byzantine emperors. The Empire of Trebizond has been far less researched than...
Byzantine Empire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire existed from 330 to 1453. It is often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium. The Byzantine capital was founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337). The Byzantine Empire varied in size over the...
Map of the Ptolemaic World
Image by J M Dent (1912)

Map of the Ptolemaic World

A map showing the known world at the time of the Ptolemaic Empire, ca. 300 BC.
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