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Roman Egypt
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that had ruled Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. After the murder of Gaius...
Ottoman Empire
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1922 as an empire; 1922-1924 as caliphate only), also referred to as the Ottoman Empire, written in Turkish as Osmanlı Devleti, was a Turkic imperial state that was conceived by and named after Osman (l. 1258-1326...
Ptolemaic King
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Ptolemaic King

Limestone head of Ptolemaic King, 2nd to 1st century BCE, Medinet Madi. (Egyptian Museum, Castello Sforzesco, Milan)
Holy Roman Empire
Definitionby Simon Duits

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire officially lasted from 962 to 1806. It was one of Europe’s largest medieval and early modern states, but its power base was unstable and continually shifting. The Holy Roman Empire was not a unitary state, but a confederation...
Ptolemaic Egypt c. 240 BCE
Imageby Simeon Netchev

Ptolemaic Egypt c. 240 BCE

A map illustrating the political situation in Ptolemaic Egypt in 240 BCE, during the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, eight decades after the death of Alexander the Great, as the kingdom reached its economic and military height. It also depicts...
The Extent of the Roman Empire
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

The Extent of the Roman Empire

Time has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires - the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Egyptian, and lastly, the Persian. Regardless of the size or skill of their army or the capabilities of their leaders, all of these empires fell...
Ancient Persian Government
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Government

The government of ancient Persia was based on an efficient bureaucracy which combined the centralization of power with the decentralization of administration. The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530...
Cleopatra Selene II
Definitionby Arienne King

Cleopatra Selene II

Cleopatra Selene II (40 - c. 5 BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty who became the queen of Mauretania upon her marriage to King Juba II of Numidia (48 BCE - 23 CE). Though more obscure than her famous mother, Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE...
Gupta Empire
Definitionby Dola RC

Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE...
Sasanian Empire
Definitionby Alonso Constenla Cervantes

Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE, also given as Sassanian, Sasanid or Sassanid) was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire, established in 224 CE by Ardeshir I, son of Papak, descendant of Sasan. The Empire lasted until 651 CE when it was overthrown...
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