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Roman Egypt
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that had ruled Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. After the murder of Gaius...
Ptolemaic King
Image by Mark Cartwright

Ptolemaic King

Limestone head of Ptolemaic King, 2nd to 1st century BCE, Medinet Madi. (Egyptian Museum, Castello Sforzesco, Milan)
The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire
Article by Isaac Toman Grief

The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire

"The Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire," wrote Voltaire, and this interpretation still dominates the popular imagination, so the Holy Roman Empire is treated as a bad joke, a pale parody of the glory of Rome...
Ptolemaic Egypt c. 240 BCE
Image by Simeon Netchev

Ptolemaic Egypt c. 240 BCE

A map illustrating the political situation in Ptolemaic Egypt in 240 BCE, during the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, eight decades after the death of Alexander the Great, as the kingdom reached its economic and military height. It also depicts...
Cleopatra Selene II
Definition by Arienne King

Cleopatra Selene II

Cleopatra Selene II (40 - c. 5 BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty who became the queen of Mauretania upon her marriage to King Juba II of Numidia (48 BCE - 23 CE). Though more obscure than her famous mother, Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE...
Ottoman Empire
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1922 as an empire; 1922-1924 as caliphate only), also referred to as the Ottoman Empire, written in Turkish as Osmanlı Devleti, was a Turkic imperial state that was conceived by and named after Osman (l. 1258-1326...
Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Arsinoe II Philadelphus

Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Collection of Ptolemaic Jewellery
Image by Getty Museum

Collection of Ptolemaic Jewellery

This opulent collection of Ptolemaic jewellery from Egypt probably belonged to a wealthy woman and was made between 225–175 BCE. The various pieces were made out of gold and are inlaid with a variety of precious stones. The collection...
Diademed Head of a Ptolemaic King
Image by Getty Museum

Diademed Head of a Ptolemaic King

This marble portrait of a diademed man is believed to depict a Ptolemaic king. The piece is made of marble from Asia Minor and was produced in Alexandria, Egypt. The portrait is part of the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum. Digital...
Holy Roman Empire
Definition by Simon Duits

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire officially lasted from 962 to 1806. It was one of Europe’s largest medieval and early modern states, but its power base was unstable and continually shifting. The Holy Roman Empire was not a unitary state, but a confederation...
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