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Empire of Nicaea
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea was a successor state to the Byzantine Empire, or rather a Byzantine Empire in exile lasting from 1204 to 1261 CE. The Empire of Nicaea was founded in the aftermath of the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade...
Roman Egypt
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that had ruled Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. After the murder of Gaius...
Alexandria, Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It was the site of the Pharos (lighthouse), one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the legendary Library of Alexandria...
Hadra Funerary Urn from Ptolemaic Egypt
Image by Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hadra Funerary Urn from Ptolemaic Egypt

This c. 275-250 BCE terracotta amphora was found in the Hadra cemetery in Alexandria, Egypt. It was originally produced in Crete and was exported to Alexandria. The aptly named Hadra Hydriai are a collection of primarily Cretan vases which...
Ptolemaic Silver Wine Vase
Image by Allard Pierson Museum

Ptolemaic Silver Wine Vase

Different cultural traditions met in Hellenistic Egypt, as this small silver wine vase illustrates (11 cm in height; ca. 200-150 BCE; APM inv. no. 3397). It is decorated with acanthus and lotus leaves, floral motifs from respectively Greece...
Ptolemaic Statue of a Dancing Dwarf
Image by Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ptolemaic Statue of a Dancing Dwarf

This marble statue of a dwarf was sculpted around 332-150 BCE and is believed to have originated in Alexandria, Egypt. The dancing figure may have held cultic associations as dwarves were linked to Greek religious practice and were often...
Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic Period
Image by Mark Cartwright

Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic Period

A detail from the Book of the Dead of Tayesnakht from Thebes, Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BCE. (Egyptian Museum, Turin)
Head of a Mummy from Ptolemaic-Roman Egypt
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Head of a Mummy from Ptolemaic-Roman Egypt

This is the upper part of the mummy of an unknown young man; probably, his age was below 21 years. The rest of the mummy is intact but is not shown here. The mummy was discovered in the 1820s. The elaborate preparation of this mummy is highly...
Ptolemaic Slab with Two Goddesses
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Ptolemaic Slab with Two Goddesses

This is a limestone block which depicts the heads and bodies of two goddesses; both are looking to the left side. The background was left rough. From Egypt, precise provenance of excavation is unknown. Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BCE. The Petrie...
Head of a Ptolemaic King
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Head of a Ptolemaic King

This diorite head of an Egyptian king was depicted as Amun/Jupiter. Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BCE. From Egypt. (Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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