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Berenice II Euergetis
Definitionby Branko van Oppen

Berenice II Euergetis

Berenice II Euergetis (c. 267-221 BCE) was a pre-eminent Hellenistic queen, who ruled together with her husband Ptolemy III (r. 246-221 BCE), when the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power, dominating most of the eastern Mediterranean...
Achaemenid Empire
Definitionby Peter Davidson

Achaemenid Empire

East of the Zagros Mountains, a high plateau stretches off towards India. While Egypt was rising up against the Hyksos, a wave of pastoral tribes from north of the Caspian Sea was drifting down into this area and across into India. By the...
Portuguese Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire was established from the 15th century and eventually stretched from the Americas to Japan. Very often a string of coastal trading centres with defensive fortifications, there were larger territorial colonies like Brazil...
Mongol Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (1206-1368) was founded by Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1227), first Great Khan or 'universal ruler' of the Mongol peoples. Genghis forged the empire by uniting nomadic tribes of the Asian steppe and creating a devastatingly effective...
Egyptian Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Empire

The Egyptian Empire rose during the period of the New Kingdom (c. 1570- c. 1069 BCE), when the country reached its height of wealth, international prestige, and military might. The empire stretched from modern-day Syria in the north to modern-day...
Cultural links between India & the Greco-Roman world
Articleby Sanujit

Cultural links between India & the Greco-Roman world

Cyrus the Great (558-530 BCE) built the first universal empire, stretching from Greece to the Indus River. This was the famous Achaemenid Dynasty of Persia. An inscription at Naqsh-i-Rustam, the tomb of his able successor Darius I (521-486...
Ptolemaic Trade Networks in the Late 1st Century BCE
Imageby Arienne King

Ptolemaic Trade Networks in the Late 1st Century BCE

This map illustrates the trading networks which connected the Ptolemaic Kingdom to South Asia and East Africa by the second half of the 1st century BCE. During this time period, Ptolemaic Egypt was a major player in the spice trade which...
Oyo Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Oyo Empire

The Oyo Empire flourished from the 17th to 19th century CE in what is today southwest Nigeria. The Oyo forged an empire thanks to their formidable cavalry units and so came to dominate other Yoruba peoples of the region. The Oyo Empire, with...
Continuity and Change after the Fall of the Roman Empire
Articleby Dr Michael Arnheim

Continuity and Change after the Fall of the Roman Empire

The cataclysmic end of the Roman Empire in the West has tended to mask the underlying features of continuity. The map of Europe in the year 500 would have been unrecognizable to anyone living a hundred years earlier. Gone was the solid boundary...
Ancient Egyptian Government
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Government

The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws...
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