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Mercy Otis Warren
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Mercy Otis Warren

Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814) was an American poet, playwright, and activist during the era of the American Revolution (1765-1789). Through her works of political satire, she advocated for the Patriot cause and became acquainted with several...
Women in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Women in the American Revolution

In Colonial America, women were discouraged from taking an interest in politics and were instead expected to focus only on traditionally 'feminine' matters, such as homemaking and childrearing. However, such gender roles were challenged during...
Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution

The astronomers of the Scientific Revolution rejected long-held theories of ancient thinkers like Claudius Ptolemy and Aristotle and instead set out to systematically observe the heavens in order to create a model of the universe that fit...
African Americans in the American Revolution
Article by Harrison W. Mark

African Americans in the American Revolution

On the eve of the American Revolution (1765-1789), the Thirteen Colonies had a population of roughly 2.1 million people. Around 500,000 of these were African Americans, of whom approximately 450,000 were enslaved. Comprising such a large...
Clocks in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Clocks in the Scientific Revolution

Keeping good time proved an elusive objective for centuries, and it was only in the second half of the 17th century, during the Scientific Revolution (1500-1700), that clocks were made which lost seconds rather than minutes each day. The...
Louis XVI, the Girondins, & the Road to Revolutionary War (1791-92)
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Louis XVI, the Girondins, & the Road to Revolutionary War (1791-92)

On 20 April 1792, King Louis XVI of France (r. 1774-1792) stood before the Legislative Assembly and, with a faltering voice, read a declaration of war against Austria, to the ecstatic delight of the gathered deputies. This declaration sealed...
Steam Hammer
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Steam Hammer

The steam hammer was developed in 1839 by the Scotsman James Nasmyth (also spelt Naysmyth, 1808-1890). Coming in a wide range of dimensions, the steam-powered machine was used to forge and shape very large pieces of metal for industrial use...
Charlotte Corday
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Charlotte Corday

Charlotte Corday (1768-1793) played a prominent role in the French Revolution (1789-1799) when she assassinated radical activist Jean-Paul Marat in his bathtub on 13 July 1793. Despite her aristocratic background, Corday was an avowed republican...
Antoine Barnave
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Antoine Barnave

Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (1761-1793) was a French lawyer, politician, and one of the most influential orators of the early stage of the French Revolution (1789-1799). He is notable for being a champion of constitutional monarchy...
The Microscope & the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Microscope & the Scientific Revolution

The microscope was one of the most significant inventions of the Scientific Revolution, opening up completely new and miniaturised worlds. The first microscopes were invented in the first quarter of the 17th century in the Netherlands, but...
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