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Observatories in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Observatories in the Scientific Revolution

The foundation of observatories during the Scientific Revolution (1500-1700) followed a process of evolution from entirely independent observatories operated by a single astronomer to private observatories which received state or private...
Industrial Landscape by Kregczy
Image by Edmund Kregczy

Industrial Landscape by Kregczy

An 1895 oil on canvas of a European industrial landscape by Edmund Kregczy (1855-1916). (Science Museum, London)
Declaration of Pillnitz
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Declaration of Pillnitz

The Declaration of Pillnitz was a joint statement issued on 27 August 1791 by Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1790-1792) and King Frederick William II of Prussia (r. 1786-1797). The declaration appealed to all European powers to unite...
Robespierre & the Death Penalty
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Robespierre & the Death Penalty

"I come to ask, not the gods, but legislators…to erase from the code of the French the blood laws that command judicial murders" (Robespierre, 6). These impassioned words, spoken by Maximilien Robespierre before France's National Constituent...
Dynamics of the Neolithic Revolution
Article by James Hancock

Dynamics of the Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution began between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago at several widely dispersed locations across the world, when our ancestors first began planting and raising crops. Agricultural communities sprang up almost simultaneously...
Watt Steam Engine
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Watt Steam Engine

The steam engine developed by the Scotsman James Watt (1736-1819) from 1769 was much more efficient in terms of power and fuel consumption than earlier models, and it significantly increased the possible uses for this key invention of the...
The Thermometer & the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Thermometer & the Scientific Revolution

The thermometer was invented in the mid-17th century during the Scientific Revolution when scientists began to search for an accurate instrument to measure a wide range of temperatures using a scale that could be compared with other readings...
The Telescope & the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Telescope & the Scientific Revolution

The invention of the telescope in 1608 is usually credited to the Dutchman Hans Lippershey. The astronomical telescope became one of the most important of all instruments during the Scientific Revolution when figures like Galileo (1564-1642...
Women Scientists in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women Scientists in the Scientific Revolution

Women scientists during the Scientific Revolution (1500-1700) were few in number because male-dominated educational institutions, as well as scientific societies and academies, barred women entry, meaning that few had the education or opportunity...
Thermidorian Reaction
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Thermidorian Reaction

The Thermidorian Reaction refers to the period of the French Revolution (1789-1799) between the fall of Maximilien Robespierre on 27-28 July 1794 and the establishment of the French Directory on 2 November 1795. The Thermidorians abandoned...
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