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Saladin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Saladin

Saladin (1137-93) was the Muslim Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193) who shocked the western world by defeating an army of the Christian Crusader states at the Battle of Hattin and then capturing Jerusalem in 1187. Saladin all but destroyed...
Empress Theodora
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Empress Theodora

Theodora reigned as empress of the Byzantine Empire alongside her husband, Emperor Justinian I, from 527 CE until her death in 548 CE. Rising from a humble background and overcoming the prejudices of her somewhat disreputable early career...
Justinian I
Definitionby Will Wyeth

Justinian I

Justinian I reigned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE. Born around 482 CE in Tauresium, a village in Illyria, his uncle Emperor Justin I was an imperial bodyguard who reached the throne on the death of Anastasius in 518...
Zacchaeus
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Zacchaeus

Zacchaeus was a tax collector in the city of Jericho during the ministry of Jesus of Nazareth (20s-30s CE). 'Zacchaeus' means "pure" or "innocent" in Greek. The story of Zacchaeus became a popular teaching lesson in early Christianity. He...
Herod the Great
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Herod the Great

Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea who ruled as a client of Rome. He has gained lasting infamy as the 'slaughterer of the innocents' as recounted in the New Testament's book of Mathew. Herod was, though...
Didache
Definitionby John T. Lowe

Didache

The Didache (Koine Greek: διδαχή), also known as “The Teaching,” or, “The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,” is an enigmatic primitive Church document describing early Christian ethics, practices...
Helena of Constantinople
Definitionby Jéssica da Costa Minati Moraes

Helena of Constantinople

Saint Helena of Constantinople (248/250-328 CE) was the mother of Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE). She famously made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where tradition claims found Christ's true cross and built the Basilica of the Holy...
Saint Peter
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Saint Peter

Saint Peter the Apostle was a well-known figure in early Christianity. Although there is no information on the life of Peter outside the Bible, in the Christian tradition, he is often depicted as the first on many occasions: the first to...
The Bar-Kochba Revolt
Definitionby Benjamin Kerstein

The Bar-Kochba Revolt

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction...
Battle of Hattin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
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