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Didache
Definitionby John T. Lowe

Didache

The Didache (Koine Greek: διδαχή), also known as “The Teaching,” or, “The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,” is an enigmatic primitive Church document describing early Christian ethics, practices...
Battle of Hattin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
Empress Theodora
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Empress Theodora

Theodora reigned as empress of the Byzantine Empire alongside her husband, Emperor Justinian I, from 527 CE until her death in 548 CE. Rising from a humble background and overcoming the prejudices of her somewhat disreputable early career...
The Bar-Kochba Revolt
Definitionby Benjamin Kerstein

The Bar-Kochba Revolt

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the...
Justinian I
Definitionby Will Wyeth

Justinian I

Justinian I reigned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE. Born around 482 CE in Tauresium, a village in Illyria, his uncle Emperor Justin I was an imperial bodyguard who reached the throne on the death of Anastasius in 518...
Eighth Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Eighth Crusade

The Eighth Crusade of 1270 CE was, like the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE), led by the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE). As previously, the idea was to attack and defeat the Muslims first in Egypt and then either reconquer or negotiate...
Seventh Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE) was led by the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE) who intended to conquer Egypt and take over Jerusalem, both then controlled by the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty. Despite the initial success of capturing Damietta...
Sixth Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Sixth Crusade

The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE), which for many historians was merely the delayed final chapter of the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE), finally saw the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220-1250 CE) arrive with his army in the...
Saint Gregory the Illuminator
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Saint Gregory the Illuminator

Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Enlightener (previously known as Grigor Lusavorich, c. 239 - c. 330 CE) was the first bishop of the Armenian church, and he is widely credited with converting king Tiridates the Great to Christianity, formally...
Saint Peter
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Saint Peter

Saint Peter the Apostle was a well-known figure in early Christianity. In Christian tradition, he is often depicted as the first on many occasions: the first to be called by Jesus, the first who recognized Jesus as 'the Christ', the first...