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Chief Powhatan
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Chief Powhatan

Wahunsenacah, also known as Chief Powhatan (l. c. 1547 - c. 1618) was the head of the Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans who inhabited the region of the modern-day State of Virginia, USA, which they knew by the name of Tsenacommacah...
Food & Drink in the Elizabethan Era
Article by Mark Cartwright

Food & Drink in the Elizabethan Era

Food and drink in the Elizabethan era was remarkably diverse with much more meat and many more varieties of it being eaten by those who could afford it than is the case today. Storage of food was still a problem and so fresh produce was grown...
Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Byzantine Empire

Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances, although for safety, most sailing vessels were restricted to the better weather conditions...
Slavery in Colonial America
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Slavery in Colonial America

Slavery in Colonial America, defined as white English settlers enslaving Africans, began in 1640 in the Jamestown Colony of Virginia but had already been embraced as policy prior to that date with the enslavement and deportation of Native...
Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution
Article by Mark Cartwright

Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution

The astronomers of the Scientific Revolution rejected long-held theories of ancient thinkers like Claudius Ptolemy and Aristotle and instead set out to systematically observe the heavens in order to create a model of the universe that fit...
Food in an English Medieval Castle
Article by Mark Cartwright

Food in an English Medieval Castle

If one was looking to enjoy a fine meal in the medieval world then the best place to find a handsomely laid dinner table was in the local castle. There, in the magnificent Great Hall, feasts were regularly served for the local lord and his...
Mongol Multiculturalism
Article by Isaac Toman Grief

Mongol Multiculturalism

The Mongol Empire accepted and promoted many other cultures. Historians often talk about cultural exchange across Asia in the Mongol Empire as something that was just facilitated by peace and stability across such a huge area – the 'Pax Mongolica'...
Skulls, Temples & Churches: A Visit to the Walled City of Evora
Article by Kim Martins

Skulls, Temples & Churches: A Visit to the Walled City of Evora

The sunbaked plain of the Alentejo region in central Portugal is called planicie dourada (golden plain) by the Portuguese, and it is dotted with cork oak forests, vineyards, olive groves, and hilltop towns with whitewashed houses. 'Alentejo'...
Life in a Medieval Castle
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Life in a Medieval Castle

Protecting strategically important coastlines, passes, and roadways, castles were an essential part of medieval warfare. With such key features as a tower keep, fortified gatehouses, curtain walls with crenellations and a surrounding moat...
The Virginia Colony (APUSH Period 1 & 2 / Chapter 1 & 2)
Video by Tom Richey

The Virginia Colony (APUSH Period 1 & 2 / Chapter 1 & 2)

In this lecture on the history of the Virginia Colony, Tom Richey discusses the failed attempt by Walter Raleigh (c. 1552-1618 CE) to plant a permanent settlement on Roanoke Island during a war with Spain and the early hardships endured by...
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