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Virginia Slave Laws and Development of Colonial American Slavery
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Virginia Slave Laws and Development of Colonial American Slavery

Racialized chattel slavery developed in the English colonies of North America between 1640-1660 and was fully institutionalized by 1700. Although slavery was practiced in the New England and Middle colonies, and Massachusetts Bay Colony passed...
The Scientific Revolution in Europe
Image by Simeon Netchev

The Scientific Revolution in Europe

The Scientific Revolution in Europe, roughly 1500 to 1700, was a profound intellectual and cultural transformation that forever altered humanity's understanding of the natural world. The period witnessed a seismic shift from medieval beliefs...
Frontispiece to Sylva Sylvarum
Image by Unbekannter Künstler

Frontispiece to Sylva Sylvarum

The frontispiece to Sylva sylvarum by Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), published posthumously in 1627.
Serf
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Serf

Medieval serfs (aka villeins) were unfree labourers who worked the land of a landowner (or tenant) in return for physical and legal protection and the right to work a separate piece of land for their own basic needs. Serfs made up 75% of...
Atlantis
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Atlantis

Atlantis is a legendary city described by the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 429 – 347 BCE). Atlantis, a fabulously wealthy and advanced civilization, was swept into the sea and lost forever in a story which has captured the imagination of readers...
John Locke
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John Locke

John Locke (1632-1704) was an English philosopher responsible for laying the foundation of the European Enlightenment. Locke believed that each branch of government should have separate powers, that liberty must be protected from state interference...
Voltaire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Voltaire

Voltaire (1694-1778) was a French author, historian, and philosopher whose thoughts on religious toleration and moderation of authoritarian power were influential during the Enlightenment. His most famous work today is the satirical Candide...
Thomas Hobbes
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was an English philosopher who famously summarised his pessimistic view of human nature in his greatest work, Leviathan, published in 1651. Hobbes believed that the life of humanity in the state of nature is short...
Walter Raleigh
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh (c. 1552-1618 CE) was an English courtier, soldier, mariner, explorer, and historian. A one-time favourite of his queen, Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), Raleigh organised three expeditions to form a colony on...
Blaise Pascal
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher whose work influenced both the Scientific Revolution and later European thought. Pascal is known for his practical achievements in science, such as a calculating...
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