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The Enlightenment
Definition by Mark Cartwright

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) was a revolution in thought in Europe and North America from the late 17th century to the late 18th century. The Enlightenment involved new approaches in philosophy, science, and politics. Above all, the...
Powhatan Confederacy
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Powhatan Confederacy

The Powhatan Confederacy (c. 1570-1646 or 1677) was a political, social, and martial entity of over 30 Algonquian-speaking Native American tribes of the region of modern-day Virginia, Maryland, and part of North Carolina, USA formed under...
House of Burgesses
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

House of Burgesses

The House of Burgesses (1619-1776 CE) was the first English representative government in North America, established in July 1619 CE, for the purpose of passing laws and maintaining order in the Jamestown Colony of Virginia and the other settlements...
Alchemy
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alchemy

Alchemy is an ancient practice aimed at recreating precious substances using recipes and transformative materials such as the philosopher's stone. Alchemists believed that materials like gold, silver, gems, and purple dye could be recreated...
A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas

The history of tobacco use in the Americas goes back over 1,000 years when natives of the region chewed or smoked the leaves of the plant now known as Nicotiana rustica (primarily in the north) and Nicotiana tabacum (mostly in the south...
Jamestown Colony of Virginia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Jamestown Colony of Virginia

The Jamestown Colony in Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in North America founded in 1607. It was the third attempt of the Virginia Company of London to establish a permanent trade center in the Americas following the failures...
Frontispiece to Novum Organum
Image by Unknown Artist

Frontispiece to Novum Organum

The frontispiece to Novum Organum by Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), published in 1620. Presenting what he described as a new scientific method of inquiry, Bacon likened himself in this pioneering endeavor to Christopher Columbus, hence the...
Robert Boyle
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (1627-1691) was an Anglo-Irish chemist, physicist, and experimental philosopher. Boyle was a prolific author, made significant experiments with air pumps, and presented the first litmus test. A founding member of the Royal Society...
Anglo-Powhatan Wars
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Anglo-Powhatan Wars

The Anglo-Powhatan Wars were a series of conflicts between the English colonists of Virginia and the indigenous people of the Powhatan Confederacy between 1610-1646 CE. The Powhatan Confederacy (of over 30 tribes) was led by the chief Wahunsenacah...
Middle and Southern English Colonies
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Middle and Southern English Colonies

The establishment of the Middle and Southern English Colonies of North America was encouraged by the earlier English settlements of Jamestown Colony of Virginia in the south (founded 1607) and Plymouth Colony and, especially, Massachusetts...
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