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Tukulti-Ninurta I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Tukulti-Ninurta I

Tukulti-Ninurta I (reigned 1244-1208 BCE) was a king of the Assyrian Empire during the period known as the Middle Empire. He was the son of Shalmaneser I (reigned 1274-1245 BCE) who had completed the work of his father, Adad Nirari I, in...
Tiglath Pileser I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Tiglath Pileser I

Tiglath Pileser I (reigned 1115-1076 BCE), an Assyrian king of the period known as the Middle Empire, revitalized the economy and the military that had been suffering, more or less, since the death of the king Tukulti Ninurta I (1244-1208...
Adad Nirari I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Adad Nirari I

Adad Nirari I (r. 1307-1275 BCE) was the king of the Assyrian Empire who initiated the first major expansion of the Assyrian kingdom from the city of Ashur throughout the region of Mesopotamia. He also instituted what would become standard...
Consul
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Consul

In 509 BCE with the exit of the last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Elder, the Roman people were presented with a unique opportunity, an opportunity that would eventually have an immense impact on the rest of Europe for centuries to come: the...
Tiglath Pileser III
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Tiglath Pileser III

Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BCE) was among the most powerful kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and, according to many scholars, the founder of the empire (as opposed to the claims for Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE) or Ashurnasirpal II (884-859...
Ancient Syria
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Syria

Syria is a country located in the Middle East on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and bordered, from the north down to the west, by Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon. It is one of the oldest inhabited regions in the world with archaeological...
Shulgi of Ur
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Shulgi of Ur

Shulgi of Ur (r. 2029-1982 BCE) is considered the greatest king of the Ur III Period in Mesopotamia (2047-1750 BCE). His father was Ur-Nammu (r.2047-2030 BCE), who founded the Third Dynasty of Ur, and his mother was a daughter of King Utu-Hegal...
Ur-Nammu
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu (r. 2047-2030 BCE) was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur in Sumer who initiated the so-called Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) also known as the Sumerian Renaissance. He is best known as the king who composed the oldest extant...
Pliny the Elder
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Pliny the Elder

Aside from the usual contributions of its noble politicians and military commanders, the story of a nation also records the invaluable literary influences of its poets, dramatists, and historians. The long history of the Roman Empire is no...
Ancient Sicily
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Sicily

The Mediterranean island of Sicily, with its natural resources and strategic position on ancient trading routes, aroused the intense interest of successive empires from Carthage to Athens to Rome. Consequently, the island was never far from...
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