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Esarhaddon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon (r. 681-669 BCE) was the third king of the Sargonid Dynasty of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He was the youngest son of King Sennacherib (r. 705-681 BCE), and his mother was not the queen but a secondary wife, Zakutu (also known as...
Xochicalco
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Xochicalco

Xochicalco in central Mexico was an important hilltop centre from the 8th century CE and was a rival and successor of Teotihuacán. Architecture at the site is closely connected to that of the Classic Maya, Teotihuacan, and Veracruz...
Dur-Sharrukin
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Dur-Sharrukin

Dur-Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad, Iraq) was a city built by Sargon II of Assyria (r. 722-705 BCE) as his new capital between 717-706 BCE. The name means Fortress of Sargon and the building project became the king's near obsession as soon as...
Centurion
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Centurion

The centurion (centurio in Latin) was an officer in the Roman army whose experience and valour were a crucial factor in maintaining order on the battlefield and ensuring Rome's military successes spanned over centuries. A centurion commanded...
Sargon II
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sargon II

Sargon II (r. 722-705 BCE) was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire as founder of the Sargonid Dynasty which would rule the empire for the next century until its fall. He was a great military leader, tactician, patron...
Aedile
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Aedile

The aedile was an official of the Roman Republic who maintained Roman roads, supervised the grain and water supply, and provided the city's citizens with games among other duties. Initially, they were plebeian and elected annually by the...
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) was the final stage of the Assyrian Empire, stretching throughout Mesopotamia, the Levant, Egypt, Anatolia, and into parts of Persia and Arabia. Beginning with the reign of Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE...
Ashur
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ashur

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it lay squarely on a caravan trade route...
Marsyas
Definitionby James Lloyd

Marsyas

Marsyas the satyr, or silen, was seen as a mythological founder of aulos playing or a divine judge of it by the ancient Greeks. The way in which his aulos playing enraptured his audience was likened to the way in which Socrates mesmerised...
Chocolate in Mesoamerica
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chocolate in Mesoamerica

Chocolate was one of the most desired foods of Mesoamerica and was consumed by the Olmec, Maya, and Aztec civilizations, amongst others. Its consumption even spread via trade routes to other parts of the Americas including the Chaco Canyon...
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