Islam is an Abrahamic-monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah (l. 570-632 CE, after whose name Muslims traditionally add “peace be upon him” or, in writing, PBUH). Alongside Christianity and Judaism, it is a continuation of the teachings of Abraham (featured in both Jewish and Christian scriptures, considered a prophet in Islam, after whose name Muslims say, “peace be upon him” as well), although it does differ in some respects from both of these. The adherents of Islam are referred to as Muslims, of which there are around two billion in the world today, second only to Christians in number.

More about: Islam


  • 570
    Muhammad is born in Mecca.
  • 610
    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
  • 622
    Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
  • 624
    Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
  • 625
    Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
  • 627
    Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
  • 627
    Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.
  • 628
    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.
  • 628
    Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
  • 629
    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
  • 629
    Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
  • 630
    Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
  • 630
    Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
  • 630
    Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.
  • 632
    "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
  • 632
    Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
  • 632 - 634
    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 634 - 644
    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 637
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 644 - 656
    Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • c. 650
    Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Quran while destroying the others.
  • 651
    Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
  • 656 - 661
    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • Mar 670
    Hasan ibn Ali, Shia Islam's second imam (his father, Ali ibn Abi Talib, being the first imam), is poisoned to death.
  • Oct 680
    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • 750
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 754 - 775
    Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 - 788
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 777
    Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
  • 783
    The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 784
    Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
  • 788
    Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 1031
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
  • 1313 - 1341
    Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.