Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BCE the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the illustrious one"), and he was then known as Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.

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  • 23 Sep 63 BCE
    Octavian born Gaius Octavius Thurinus at Rome.
  • Mar 44 BCE
    Octavian / Augustus adopted posthumously by Julius Caesar.
  • 43 BCE - 36 BCE
    Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approval by the Roman Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
  • 42 BCE
    Octavian and Antony defeat Republicans under Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi (Greece).
  • 38 BCE
    Octavian amasses a naval fleet to defeat Sextus Pompey.
  • 36 BCE
    Octavian strips Lepidus of all power but Pontifex Maximus (supreme priest). Lepidus dies of old age in 12 BC.
  • 31 BCE
    Octavian uses Corcyra as a Roman naval base.
  • 2 Sep 31 BCE
    The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
  • 29 BCE
    Octavian celebrates a triple triumph in Rome.
  • 27 BCE
    Augustus creates the Praetorian Guard.
  • 27 BCE - 14 CE
    Reign of Augustus Caesar. Athens and the Agora restored.
  • 27 BCE
    Octavian is given extraordinary powers and the name Augustus by the Roman Senate.
  • c. 23 BCE
    Augustus takes over most of the powers of the tribuni plebis.
  • 19 BCE
    Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
  • 19 BCE
    Augustus is given supreme powers by the Roman Senate.
  • c. 10 BCE
    Augustus rebuilds the Temple of Castor and Pollux in Rome's Forum Romanum.
  • c. 10 BCE
    Statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus sculpted.
  • 9 BCE
    A massive altar the Ara Pacis is completed by Augustus in Rome.
  • 2 BCE
    Augusutus inaugurates the Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE.
  • c. 2 BCE
    Augustus is declared "Father of the Country".
  • 2 BCE
    Augustus appoints two Prefects (praefectus praetorio) to command the Praetorian Guard.
  • 6 CE
    Augustus creates the aerarium militare, a treasury drawn from taxes in order to fund a professional Roman army.
  • 6 CE
    Augustus creates Rome's permanent firefighting force, the Vigiles.
  • c. 13 CE
    Augustus creates the cohortes urbanae in Rome to help maintain public order.
  • 19 Aug 14 CE
    Augustus dies at Nola of natural causes.