Three Kingdoms Period in Korea


The Three Kingdoms Period of ancient Korea (57 BCE – 668 CE) is so-called because it was dominated by the three kingdoms of Baekje (Paekche), Goguryeo (Koguryo), and Silla. There was also, though, a fourth entity, the Gaya (Kaya) confederation at the southern tip of the Korean peninsula. These four states were in constant rivalry, and so they formed ever-changing alliances one with another and with the two dominant regional powers of China and Japan. Eventually, the Silla kingdom, with significant Tang Dynasty aid, would come to dominate and in the late 7th century CE form a single state, the Unified Silla Kingdom.

More about: Three Kingdoms Period in Korea


  • 57 BCE - 918 CE
    The Silla Kingdom rules in Korea, first as one of the Three Kingdoms and then alone from 668 CE.
  • 57 BCE - 4 CE
    Reign of traditional founder of Korea's Silla kingdom Hyeokgeose.
  • 57 BCE - 668 CE
    Three Kingdoms Period in Korea (Silla, Goguryeo, and Baekje).
  • 37 BCE
    Traditional founding date of the Goguryeo Kindom in northern Korea.
  • 37 BCE - 668 CE
    The Goguryeo kingdom rules in northern Korea.
  • 18 BCE
    Traditional founding date of the Baekje kingdom in Korea.
  • 18 BCE - 660 CE
    The Baekje Kingdom rules in western Korea.
  • 3 CE
    The Goguryeo capital is established at Gungnae.
  • 42 CE - 532 CE
    The Gaya (Kaya) Confederation rules in central Korea.
  • 53 CE - 146 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Taejo in northern Korea.
  • 179 CE - 196 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Gogukcheon in northern Korea.
  • 234 CE - 286 CE
    Reign of Baekje king Goi in western Korea.
  • 313 CE
    The Goguryeo kingdom conquers the last Chinese commandery at Lelang.
  • 314 CE
    Baekje conquers the Taebang commando in Korea.
  • 331 CE - 371 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Gogugwon in northern Korea.
  • 342 CE
    Murong Huang invades Korea from China and sacks the Goguryeo capital of Gungnae, taking 50,000 inhabitants prisoner.
  • 346 CE - 375 CE
    Reign of the Baekje king Guenchogo in western Korea.
  • 371 CE
    Baekje conquers the Mahan federation and attacks Pyongyang, killing the Goguryeo king Gogugwon.
  • 372 CE
    A Confucian Academy is established in the Goguryeo kingdom of northern Korea and Buddism is adopted as the state religion.
  • 375 CE
    The Sogi, a history of the Baekje Kingdom in Korea, is written.
  • 375 CE - 384 CE
    Reign of Baekje king Geungusu in western Korea.
  • 384 CE
    Buddhism is adopted as the state religion by the Baekje kingdom of western Korea.
  • 384 CE - 385 CE
    Reign of Baekje king Chimnyu in western Korea.
  • 391 CE - 413 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Gwanggaeto the Great in northern Korea.
  • 413 CE - 491 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Jangsu in northern Korea.
  • 417 CE - 458 CE
    Reign of Silla king Nulji in south-eastern Korea.
  • 427 CE
    Pyongyang replaces Gungnae as the Goguryeo capital.
  • 433 CE - 553 CE
    Baekje forms an alliance with the Silla kingdom in Korea.
  • 458 CE - 500 CE
    Reign of Silla king Soji in south-eastern Korea.
  • 475 CE
    Goguryeo attacks the Baekje kingdom, killing the king Gaero and forcing the abandonment of Hansong, his capital.
  • 475 CE
    A new Baekje capital is established at Ungjin (modern Gongju/Kongju).
  • 479 CE - 501 CE
    Reign of Baekje king Dongseong in western Korea.
  • 500 CE - 514 CE
    Reign of Silla king Jijeung in south-eastern Korea.
  • 501 CE - 523 CE
    The Baekje king Muryeong reigns in western Korea.
  • 514 CE - 540 CE
    Reign of Silla king Beopheung in south-eastern Korea.
  • 520 CE
    Silla king Beopheung introduces the bone rank system (Golpum).
  • 523 CE - 554 CE
    Reign of Baekje king Seong in western Korean.
  • 525 CE
    The tomb of King Muryeong of Baekje is built near Gongju, Korea.
  • 532 CE
    Silla captures and destroys the Gaya city of Bon-Gaya in southern Korea.
  • 538 CE
    A new Baekje capital is established at Sabi (modern Buyeo/Puyo).
  • 554 CE
    The Silla kingdom attacks the Baekje kingdom and occupies the lower Han River valley.
  • 554 CE
    At the battle of Gwansan Fortress (modern Okcheon) the Baekje army is defeated by the Silla and King Seong is killed.
  • 562 CE
    Silla conquers the Gaya city of Daegaya in southern Korea.
  • 600 CE - 641 CE
    The Baekje king Mu reigns in western Korea.
  • 612 CE
    Goguryeo general Eulji Mundeok wins a great victory against the Chinese Sui at the battle of the Salsu River.
  • 628 CE
    The Goguryeo kingdom of northern Korea builds a 480-km defensive wall as protection against attack from China.
  • 632 CE - 647 CE
    Reign of Silla queen Seondeok in south-eastern Korea.
  • 642 CE - 668 CE
    Reign of Goguryeo king Bojang in northern Korea.
  • 642 CE
    The Baekje and Goguryeo kingdoms join forces against the Silla and conquer Taeya-song (modern Hapchon).
  • 644 CE
    A Goguryeo army defeats a combined Silla and Tang army.
  • 647 CE - 654 CE
    Reign of Silla queen Jindeok in south-eastern Korea.
  • 660 CE
    The Baekje kingdom in Korea falls to a joint Silla and Chinese Tang Dynasty army and naval attack.
  • 661 CE
    A Tang Dynasty army unsuccessfully besieges the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang.
  • 663 CE
    A rebel Baekje army is finally crushed by the Silla in Korea, ending the Baekje kingdom.
  • 667 CE
    A Tang Dynasty army besieges the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang for a second time, this time successfully.
  • 668 CE
    The Goguryeo kingdom of northern Korea collapses following an attack by the Tang Dynasty of China.
  • 675 CE
    A Silla army defeats a Tang force at the battles of Maesosong.
  • 676 CE
    A Silla army defeats a Tang force at the battle of Kibolpo, thus gaining control of the whole Korean peninsula.