Richard II of England

Definition

Richard II of England reigned as king from 1377 to 1399 CE. The son of the late Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376 CE), Richard would succeed his grandfather Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE), but as he was only 10 years of age, he initially had to co-rule with his most powerful barons. The Peasants' Revolt of June 1381 CE was successfully put down but a failed campaign in Scotland, misguided favouritism at court, and the ambition of certain rival nobles all conspired to limit the power of a king who had, unwisely, considered himself divinely chosen to rule any way he wished. In August 1399 CE Richard was imprisoned, and the following February he was murdered and succeeded by his cousin and rival Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, who became Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE)

More about: Richard II of England

Timeline

  • 1337 - 1453
    The Hundred Years' War between England and France.
  • 6 Jan 1367
    Birth of Richard, eldest son of Edward the Black Prince and future Richard II of England.
  • 8 Jun 1376
    Death of Edward the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III of England.
  • 1377 - 1399
    Reign of Richard II of England.
  • 1377 - 1381
    Richard II of England imposes three consecutive poll taxes on his subjects.
  • 21 Jun 1377
    Death, likely from a stroke, of Edward III of England.
  • 16 Jul 1377
    Coronation of Richard II of England in Westminster Abbey.
  • Jun 1381
    The Peasants' Revolt in England.
  • 15 Jun 1381
    Richard II of England meets and disbands a mob in London to end the Peasants' Revolt.
  • 1382
    Richard II of England marries Anne of Bohemia.
  • 1385
    Richard II of England leads an army into Scotland but the Scots avoid an engagement.
  • 1386
    Richard II of England makes the unpopular Robert de Vere the Duke of Ireland.
  • Dec 1387
    A group of English barons defeat Robert de Vere and his supporters at the Battle of Radcot Bridge near Oxford.
  • 1388
    The 'Merciless Parliament' appoints five Lords Appellants to rule England and sidelines Richard II of England.
  • 1393
    Richard II of England refurbishes Westminster Palace.
  • 1394
    Richard II of England leads an army to Ireland where 80 Irish chiefs pay homage to the king.
  • Jun 1394
    Death of Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England, likely from the plague.
  • 12 Mar 1396
    Richard II of England marries Isabella of France, the daughter of Charles VI of France, thus sealing a three-decade peace between the two countries.
  • 1397
    Richard II of England begins a purge on the Lords Appellant, who were voted by the 'Merciless Parliament' to rule in his stead. They are executed or exiled, including Henry Bolingbroke.
  • 3 Feb 1399
    Death of John of Gaunt, son of Edward III of England and Duke of Lancaster. His son Henry Bolingbroke inherits the title and the claim to the throne.
  • Jun 1399 - Jul 1399
    Henry Bolingbroke lands in northern England with a small invading army and marches south.
  • 20 Aug 1399
    King Richard II of England is forced to give himself up from his refuge in Conwy Castle.
  • Sep 1399
    Richard II of England is imprisoned in the Tower of London by Henry Bolingbroke.
  • 29 Sep 1399
    Henry Bolingbroke forces Richard II of England to sign a formal document of abdication.
  • 30 Sep 1399
    Parliament officially nominates Henry Bolingbroke as Richard II of England’s successor.
  • 13 Oct 1399
    Coronation of Henry IV of England in Westminster Abbey.
  • 14 Feb 1400
    Death of Richard II of England in Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire.
Membership