Charlemagne (Charles the Great, also known as Charles I, l. 742-814) was King of the Franks (r. 768-814), King of the Franks and Lombards (r. 774-814), and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 800-814). He is among the best-known and most influential figures of the Early Middle Ages for his military successes which united most of Western Europe, his educational and ecclesiastical reforms, and his policies which laid the foundation for the development of later European nations.

More about: Charlemagne


  • 768 - 814
    Charlemage reigns as King of the Franks.
  • 768 - 771
    Charlemagne co-rules Francia with his brother Carloman I until Carloman's death.
  • 772 - 804
    The Saxon Wars; Charlemagne defeats the Saxons and establishes Christianity in Saxony.
  • 774 - 814
    Charlemagne reigns as King of the Franks and Lombards.
  • 777
    Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
  • 778 - 796
    Charlemagne expands his kingdom through military conquest.
  • 778
    Charlemagne's rearguard is destroyed retreating from Spain in the Battle of Roncesvalles, Charlemagne's only loss.
  • 800
    Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III.
  • 800 - 814
    Reign of Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 807
    A peace treaty is signed between king of the Franks Charlemagne and Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I.
  • 814
    Charlemagne dies and is succeeded by his son Louis the Pious.