Byblos Timeline

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  • c. 4000 BCE - c. 3000 BCE
    Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
  • 1725 BCE
    Invasion of the Hyksos.
  • 1580 BCE - c. 800 BCE
    Byblos liberated and occupied by the Egyptians. Phoenecian alphabet developed and spread through trade.
  • c. 1200 BCE - c. 800 BCE
    First wave of Phoenician colonization where largely trading-posts are founded throughout the Mediterranean.
  • 1100 BCE - 725 BCE
    Decline of Byblos as the sister city of Tyre rises in prominence.
  • c. 1000 BCE
    Death of Ahiram (or Ahirom) of Byblos, whose sarcophagus bears the oldest inscription of the Phoenician alphabet.
  • c. 800 BCE - 600 BCE
    Second stage of Phoenician colonization where trading-posts become full colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
  • 332 BCE
    Conquest of the Levant by Alexander the Great who destroys Tyre.
  • 330 BCE - 64 BCE
    Hellenistic Period in Byblos.
  • 64 BCE
    Byblos conquered by the Roman general Pompey the Great.
  • 64 BCE - 395 CE
    Byblos is a colony of the Roman Empire.
  • 395 CE - 637 CE
    Byblos is a colony of the Byzantine Empire (formerly known as the Eastern Roman Empire).
  • 637 CE
    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
  • 637 CE
    Muslim rule of Byblos and surrounding region. Byblos steadily declines through neglect.
  • 1098 CE
    Christian Crusaders invade Byblos.
  • 1099 CE
    Muslim rule restored in the region. Byblos continues to decline until it is forgotten.