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Enheduanna
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Enheduanna

The Akkadian poet Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 BCE) is the world's first author known by name and was the daughter of Sargon of Akkad (Sargon the Great, r. 2334-2279 BCE). Whether Enheduanna was, in fact, a blood relative of Sargon's or the title...
Sargon II's Stele
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sargon II's Stele

This basalt stele was found in Bamboula, Kition (modern Laranca, Cyprus) in 1845 CE. The cuneiform inscriptions on the frontal side of the stele commemorate Sargon's victories against Medes, Babylon, Syria, and Urartu. The king worships in...
Mesopotamian Government
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Government

Ancient Mesopotamian government was based on the understanding that human beings were created to help and serve the gods. The high priest, king, assembly of elders, governors, and any other officials were recognized as stewards chosen by...
Naram-Sin
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Naram-Sin

Naram-Sin (r. 2261-2224 BCE) was the last great king of the Akkadian Empire and grandson of Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who founded the empire. He is considered the most important Akkadian king after Sargon (or, according to some...
Women in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Mesopotamia

The lives of women in ancient Mesopotamia cannot be characterized as easily as with other civilizations owing to the different cultures over time. Generally speaking, though, Mesopotamian women had significant rights, could own businesses...
Sennacherib
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sennacherib

Sennacherib (r. 705-681 BCE) was the second king of the Sargonid Dynasty of Assyria (founded by his father Sargon II, r. 722-705 BCE). He is one of the most famous Assyrian kings owing to the part he plays in narratives in the biblical Old...
Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name (meaning “the land between two rivers”, the Tigris and Euphrates) for the region corresponding to modern-day Iraq and parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. It is considered the “cradle of civilization” for...
Sargon II Wall Relief
Image by Jastrow

Sargon II Wall Relief

Sargon II and dignitary on a low-relief from the left wall of the palace of Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), c. 716–713 BCE. Sargon II reigned 722-705 BCE and was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian...
Sargon II Attacks a City
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sargon II Attacks a City

This relief was part of Sargon II's throne, from Throne Hall VII of the Royal Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad, in modern-day Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. Circa 710 BCE. The Assyrian king, Sargon II, stands in his royal chariot, below a...
Sargon II's Throne
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sargon II's Throne

Two Assyrian servants carry what appears to the throne of King Sargon II. Traces of the original paint can be seen. Note the details of the throne. This alabaster bas-relief is part of a long tributary scene, where the Assyrian king, Sargon...
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