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Ahura Mazda
Definitionby Radu Cristian

Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ahuramazda, Harzoo, Hormazd, Hourmazd, Hurmuz, Ohrmazd, 'Lord' or 'Spirit') is the highest spirit worshipped in Zoroastrianism, the old Mede and ancient Persian mythology which spread across Asia predating Christianity...
The Army of Alexander the Great
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

The Army of Alexander the Great

No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. To be successful he needs the support of a well-trained army who will follow him regardless of the cost whether it be a stunning victory or hopeless defeat. One need only...
The Apadana of the Palace of Darius in Susa
Imageby Carole Raddato

The Apadana of the Palace of Darius in Susa

The Apadana (audience hall) of the Palace of Darius in Susa (Iran) was a large hypostyle room of 36 columns. Measuring 109 m on each side, it was very similar to that of Persepolis in plan and dimensions with distinctive Persian columns...
Battle of Thermopylae
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Thermopylae

Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. Despite being greatly inferior in numbers, the Greeks...
Ancient Persian Art and Architecture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Art and Architecture

Persian art and architecture in the present day is associated with the nation of Iran and usually designated as beginning with the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) but has an even longer history with its origins dating back to before the...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
Palace of Darius in Susa
Imageby Carole Raddato

Palace of Darius in Susa

The foundations of the Palace of Darius the Great at Susa (Iran), the capital of Elam and of the Achaemenid Empire. The palace was built on a 12-hectare artificial platform and occupied 5 hectares. It consisted of the Apadana (audience hall...
Persian Archers
Imageby mshamma

Persian Archers

Persian Archers at Darius' palace at Susa. Exhibited in Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin.
The Alexander Mosaic
Imageby Carole Raddato

The Alexander Mosaic

The Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BCE, depicts the Battle of Issus (333 BCE) between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. The mosaic adorned one of the exedras on the north side of the peristyle of the House of the Faun...
Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Alexander's Attack
Imageby US Military Academy

Map of the Battle of Gaugamela - Alexander's Attack

A map of the battle of Gaugamela depicting Alexander the Great attacking Darius III, a move that led to victory.