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Ancient Persian Culture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Culture

Ancient Persian culture flourished between the reign of Cyrus II (The Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE), founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and the fall of the Sassanian Empire in 651 CE. Even so, the foundations of Persian culture were already...
Hephaestion
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Hephaestion

Hephaestion was a member of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguard and the Macedonian king's closest and lifelong friend and advisor. So much so, Hephaestion's death would bring the young king to tears. From 334 to 323 BCE Alexander the...
Alexander the Great & the Burning of Persepolis
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great & the Burning of Persepolis

In the year 330 BCE Alexander the Great (l. 356-323 BCE) conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire following his victory over the Persian Emperor Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BCE. After Darius III's defeat...
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Videoby Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy

Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E.

Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E., Achaemenid, Tell of the Apadana, Susa, Iran (Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
Persian Wars
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Persian Wars

The Persian Wars refers to the conflict between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BCE which involved two invasions by the latter in 490 and 480 BCE. Several of the most famous and significant battles in history were fought during the...
Battle of the Granicus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped...
Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia had more rights and greater freedom than any other ancient civilization including, according to some scholars, even ancient Egypt which is famous for its respect for the feminine principle in religion as well as daily...
Alexander the Great as a God
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Alexander the Great as a God

The age-old concept of the “divine right of kings” allowed that a country's ruler received his or her power or authority from God. However, few, if any, were delusional enough to actually believe themselves to be a god. An exception to this...
Alexander the Great
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great (l. 21 July 356 BCE – 10 or 11 June 323 BCE, r. 336-323 BCE), was the son of King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE) who became king upon his father's death in 336 BCE and then...
Scythians
Definitionby Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Scythians

The Scythians were a nomadic people whose culture flourished between the 7th and 3rd century BCE in a territory ranging from Thrace in the west, across the steppe of Central Asia, to the Altai Mountains of Mongolia in the east. This covers...