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Battle of Marathon
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Marathon

The Battle on the plain of Marathon in September 490 BCE between Greeks and the invading forces of Persian king Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE) was a victory that would go down in folklore as the moment the Greek city-states showed the world their...
Late Period of Ancient Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Late Period of Ancient Egypt

The Late Period of Egypt (525-332 BCE) is the era following the Third Intermediate Period (1069-525) and preceding the brief Hellenistic Period (332-323 BCE) when Egypt was ruled by the Argead officials installed by Alexander the Great prior...
Miltiades
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Miltiades

Miltiades (c. 555-489 BCE) was the Athenian general who defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. The Greeks faced a Persian force of superior numbers led by the commanding admiral Datis, who had been sent by their king...
Darius I Inscribed Stone Weight
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Darius I Inscribed Stone Weight

The cuneiform inscription on this polished diorite weight states "I Darius, the great king, the son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian". This is an abbreviated version of a standard inscription on a series of stone weights of Darius, which can...
Darius III (Facial Reconstruction)
Imageby Arienne King

Darius III (Facial Reconstruction)

A photorealistic representation of the Persian king Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) as he may have appeared. This reconstruction is largely based on artistic evidence like the Alexander Mosaic (c. 100 BCE) and coins minted during the reign of...
Cambyses II
Definitionby Daan Nijssen

Cambyses II

Cambyses II (r. 530-522 BCE) was the second king of the Achaemenid Empire. The Greek historian Herodotus portrays Cambyses as a mad king who committed many acts of sacrilege during his stay in Egypt, including the slaying of the sacred Apis...
Headless Statue of Darius the Great
Imageby Carole Raddato

Headless Statue of Darius the Great

Headless, 2.5-metre tall (8.2 feet) granite statue of Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE) originally made to be set up in Egypt and found in 1972 in Susa on the west side of the Gate of Darius. Darius the Great is dressed in the Persian robe but in...
Darius I as Pharaoh of Egypt
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Darius I as Pharaoh of Egypt

This wooden door shows Darius I (reigned 521-486 BCE) dressed as pharaoh on the right, making an offering to the Egyptian god Anubis. The goddess Isis stands on the left. The door originally belonged to a box (or naos) used to contain statuettes...
Ancient Persian Warfare
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Warfare

The ancient Persian military evolved from the earlier armed forces of the Medes which, in turn, developed from the warrior class of the indigenous people of the Iranian Plateau, the Aryan migrants (including the Persians) who later settled...
Darius Trampling Gaumata
Imageby Patrick C. (dynamomosquito)

Darius Trampling Gaumata

Close-up of the Behistun Inscription.
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