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Urartu Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Urartu Civilization

Urartu, also known as the Kingdom of Urartu or the Kingdom of Van, was a civilization which developed in the Bronze and Iron Age of ancient Armenia, eastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran from the 9th century BCE. Controlling territories through...
Ancient Persian Government
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Government

The government of ancient Persia was based on an efficient bureaucracy which combined the centralization of power with the decentralization of administration. The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530...
Assur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Assur

Assur (also Ashur, Anshar) is the god of the Assyrians who was elevated from a local deity of the city of Ashur to the supreme god of the Assyrian pantheon. His attributes were drawn from earlier Sumerian and Babylonian deities and so he...
Ashur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashur

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it lay squarely on a caravan trade route...
Assyrian Chariots
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Assyrian Chariots

This wall panel, one of a series, shows two disconnected scenes. Above is part of a battle. Below, the royal chariot waits behind Tiglath-pileser III, who was shown on a panel to the right. The writing in the middle deals with the Assyrian...
Assyrian Winged-bull Head
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Assyrian Winged-bull Head

This fragment of a human-headed winged-bull, from Tiglath-pileser III's palace, is carved in low-relief like a wall panel. There is a marked contrast with the colossal figures in very high relief, of both earlier and later periods. Assyrian...
Door Slab from the Central Palace, Nimrud
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Door Slab from the Central Palace, Nimrud

These cuneifrom inscriptions describe some of the military campaigns of the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III (reigned 744-727 BCE) and were probably first placed in a doorway of the Central Palace built by this King at Nimrud. Assyrian...
Assyrian Military Campaign Against Syria
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Assyrian Military Campaign Against Syria

This wall panel, one of a series, shows 2 disconnected scenes. Above, Tiglath-pileser III's army is attacking a town, perhaps in Syria. Below, Assyrian soldiers carry "gods" captured from a defeated enemy. The writing in the middle describes...
Phoenician Bronze Bowl from Nimrud
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Phoenician Bronze Bowl from Nimrud

Over 150 bronze bowls were found in a palace at the city of Nimrud. These bowls were made in Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanese and Syrian coasts), and were brought to Nimrud as tribute or booty by one of the kings who campaigned in the west...
Assyrian Battle Scene
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Assyrian Battle Scene

An enemy horseman is ridden down by a pair of a armored cavalrymen in the Assyrian army. The hair style and shape of the beard suggests that these men are not Assyrians but foreign auxiliaries. A grim but authentic battlefield detail is the...
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