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The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Richard Strauss
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard Strauss

Richard Strauss (1864-1949) was a German conductor and composer of both innovative late-Romantic and Modernist music. He is best known for his symphonic poems and operas like Salome and Elektra, both of which caused a sensation. Strauss gained...
Richard Grenville
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard Grenville

Sir Richard Grenville (1542-1591 CE) was an Elizabethan adventurer, mariner, and privateer whose life story is as entertaining as any fictional sailor. His early career saw him become a Member of Parliament, a soldier in Hungary, and a plantation...
Richard Wagner
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was a German composer of Romantic music most famous for his epic operas like The Ring, Tannhäuser, and Tristan and Isolde. Wagner was concerned throughout his career with the theme of redemption through love and...
Henry IV of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry IV of England

Henry IV of England ruled as king from 1399 to 1413 CE. Known as Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster before he became king, Henry clashed with his cousin Richard II of England (r. 1377-1399 CE) and was exiled in 1397 CE. Returning to England...
Third Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of 'the Kings' Crusade'. The three leaders were...
Yorks v Lancasters - The Wars of the Roses
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Yorks v Lancasters - The Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a four-decade struggle between two branches of the descendants of Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE). These two family groups: the Lancasters and Yorks, would swap places on the throne of England...
Henry VI of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry VI of England

Henry VI of England ruled as king from 1422 to 1461 CE and again from 1470 to 1471 CE. Succeeding his father Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE), Henry VI was crowned the king of France in 1431 CE but he could not prevent a French revival...
Wars of the Roses - York vs. Lancaster
Image by Simeon Netchev

Wars of the Roses - York vs. Lancaster

An infographic illustrating the genealogy of the prominent participants in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars that engulfed England during the late 15th century. The conflict raged between two rival branches of the royal Plantagenet...
Henry II of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry II of England

Henry II of England ruled from 1154 to 1189 CE. He gained the throne by negotiation with his predecessor King Stephen of England (r. 1135-1154 CE) following the civil war that had raged between that monarch and Henry's mother Empress Matilda...
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