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Saladin
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Saladin

Saladin (1137-93) was the Muslim Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193) who shocked the western world by defeating an army of the Christian Crusader states at the Battle of Hattin and then capturing Jerusalem in 1187. Saladin all but destroyed...
Edward III of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Edward III of England

Edward III of England reigned as king from 1327 to 1377 CE. Succeeding his father Edward II of England (r. 1307-1327 CE) following his enforced abdication and then murder, Edward III would take revenge on his father's enemies, who included...
William Howe
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

William Howe

Sir William Howe (1729-1814) was a British military officer and politician, most notable for his role as commander-in-chief of the British army during the initial years of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Despite several significant...
Hundred Years' War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) was an intermittent conflict between England and France lasting 116 years. It began principally because King Edward III (r. 1327-1377) and Philip VI (r. 1328-1350) escalated a dispute over feudal rights...
Crusades
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Crusades

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by popes and Christian western powers to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control and then defend those gains. There were eight major official crusades between 1095...
Conwy Castle
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Conwy Castle

Conwy Castle (aka Conway Castle), located in North Wales, was built by Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE) from 1283 to 1292 CE to protect and maintain, along with several other castles, his newly acquired dominance in the region. Built...
Walter Raleigh
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh (c. 1552-1618 CE) was an English courtier, soldier, mariner, explorer, and historian. A one-time favourite of his queen, Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), Raleigh organised three expeditions to form a colony on...
Medieval Chivalry
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Chivalry

In medieval Europe, a code of ethics known as chivalry developed which included rules and expectations that the nobility would, at all times, behave in a certain manner. Chivalry was, in addition, a religious, moral and social code which...
Roanoke Colony
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roanoke Colony

The Roanoke Colony was England's first colony in North America, located in what is today North Carolina, USA. Established in 1585 CE, abandoned and then resettled in 1587 CE, the colonists had little regard for their new environment and were...
Francis Drake
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) was an English mariner, privateer and explorer who in 1588 CE helped defeat the Spanish Armada of Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598 CE) which attempted to invade the kingdom of Elizabeth I of England (r...
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