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Henry VII of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry VII of England

Henry VII of England ruled as king from 1485 to 1509 CE. Henry, representing the Lancaster cause during the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE), defeated and killed his predecessor the Yorkist king Richard III of England (r. 1483-1485 CE) at...
The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Medieval Knights: 12 of the Best
Article by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Knights: 12 of the Best

The knights of medieval Europe were meant to be the finest fighting men of their age, even more important, they were expected to be pure in thought and deed, as exemplified in the chivalrous code which they (usually) followed. Here are the...
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception of women...
The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE

The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the...
William I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Richard I of England, Westminster
Image by Mattbuck

Richard I of England, Westminster

"Richard Coeur de Lion", a bronze statue of Richard I of England (commonly known as Richard the Lionheart or Richard Coeur de Lion; r. 1189 - 1199 CE). A clay model of the statue was first presented at the Great Exhibition in London, 1851...
Richard I Marches to Jerusalem
Image by James William Glass

Richard I Marches to Jerusalem

A 19th century CE painting depicting Richard I (r. 1189-1199 CE) leading the march of the Crusader army to Jerusalem during the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
Richard I the Lionheart
Image by Panagiotis Constantinou

Richard I the Lionheart

Face reconstruction of Richard I of England (the Lionheart, r. 1189-1199), based on the funerary effigy in Rouen Cathedral. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and...
Richard I & Isabella of Angoulême
Image by Mark Cartwright

Richard I & Isabella of Angoulême

The effigies of Richard I of England (r. 1189-1199) and Isabella of Angoulême (c. 1186-1246), Queen of England as the second wife of King John of England (r. 1199-1216). Fontevraud Abbey, France.
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