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Eleanor of Aquitaine
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception of women...
The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE

The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the...
Richard I of England, Westminster
Imageby Mattbuck

Richard I of England, Westminster

"Richard Coeur de Lion", a bronze statue of Richard I of England (commonly known as Richard the Lionheart or Richard Coeur de Lion; r. 1189 - 1199 CE). A clay model of the statue was first presented at the Great Exhibition in London, 1851...
William I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Richard I Marches to Jerusalem
Imageby James William Glass

Richard I Marches to Jerusalem

A 19th century CE painting depicting Richard I (r. 1189-1199 CE) leading the march of the Crusader army to Jerusalem during the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).
Richard I the Lionheart
Imageby Panagiotis Constantinou

Richard I the Lionheart

Face reconstruction of Richard I of England (the Lionheart, r. 1189-1199), based on the funerary effigy in Rouen Cathedral. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and...
Sir William Marshal
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Sir William Marshal

The Englishman Sir William Marshal (c. 1146-1219 CE, aka William the Marshal), Earl of Pembroke, is one of the most celebrated knights of the Middle Ages. Renowned for his fighting skills, he remained undefeated in tournaments, spared the...
Tomb of Richard I of England, Fontevraud Abbey
Imageby Walwyn

Tomb of Richard I of England, Fontevraud Abbey

An effigy of Richard I of England (r. 1189 - 1199 CE), popularly known as Richard the Lionheart, from his tomb in the Fontevraud Abbey in France. Richard I was buried in the Fontevraud Abbey upon his death in 1199 CE, although his remains...
Tomb of Richard I's Heart, Rouen
Imageby Walwyn

Tomb of Richard I's Heart, Rouen

A photo of a tomb in the Rouen Cathedral, containing the embalmed heart of Richard I of England (also known as Richard the Lionheart; r. 1189 - 1199 CE). In Rouen, France.
Arms of Richard I
Imageby Sodacan

Arms of Richard I

The arms of Richard I, king of England from 1189 to 1999 CE, and Engish kings thereafter.
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