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Shahnameh
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Shahnameh

The Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”, composed 977-1010 CE) is a medieval epic written by the poet Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l. c. 940-1020 CE) in order to preserve the myths, legends, history, language, and culture of ancient Persia. It is the longest...
Zorvanism
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Zorvanism

Zorvanism (also given as Zuvanism, Zurvanism) was a sect of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism which emerged in the late Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) and flourished during the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE). It is often referenced as...
Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Persia

A vision of the afterlife is articulated by every culture, ancient or modern, in an effort to answer the question of what happens after death. Ancient Persia had the same interest in this as any culture of the past or in the present day and...
Cyrus the Great
Definitionby Daan Nijssen

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus led several military campaigns against the most powerful kingdoms of the time, including Media, Lydia...
Twelve Gods of Persian Mythology
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Gods of Persian Mythology

Ancient Persian Mythology is the term now referencing ancient Iranian religion prior to the rise of Zoroastrianism between c. 1500-1000 BCE. This was a polytheistic faith with a pantheon led by the supreme god Ahura Mazda (“Lord of Wisdom”...
Late Period of Ancient Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Late Period of Ancient Egypt

The Late Period of Egypt (525-332 BCE) is the era following the Third Intermediate Period (1069-525) and preceding the brief Hellenistic Period (332-323 BCE) when Egypt was ruled by the Argead officials installed by Alexander the Great prior...
Persian Seven-Colored Tiles
Definitionby Pegah Eidipour

Persian Seven-Colored Tiles

Persian Haft Rang tiles, also known as seven-colored tiles, are highly decorative glazed tiles used to adorn the exteriors and interiors of both secular and religious buildings. The tiles first came to prominence from the 15th century and...
Artaphernes
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Artaphernes

Artaphernes (active c. 513-492 BCE, also known as Artafarna) was the satrap of Lydia under the reign of his older brother Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), monarch of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which was founded by Cyrus II...
Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE

The Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 466 BCE, also given as the Battle of the Eurymedon River) was a military engagement between the Greeks of the Delian League and the forces of the Achaemenid Empire toward the end of the reign of Xerxes I (r...
Miltiades
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Miltiades

Miltiades (c. 555-489 BCE) was the Athenian general who defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. The Greeks faced a Persian force of superior numbers led by the commanding admiral Datis, who had been sent by their king...
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