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Migration Age
Definition by Jan van der Crabben

Migration Age

The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between 300 to 700 CE in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity...
Pirate Punishments in the Golden Age of Piracy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Pirate Punishments in the Golden Age of Piracy

Pirates in the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730) both dished out and received a wide range of imaginative punishments. Victims of piracy endured torture, floggings, and ceremonies of humiliation, but when brought to justice, the pirates were...
Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in the Age of Enlightenment

In medieval and Renaissance Europe, dogs were considered little more than 'machines' which performed certain tasks, such as guarding a home or tracking game, but this view changed significantly during the Age of Enlightenment (also known...
The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Gilded Age Estates of Staatsburg, New York

The great estates of the Gilded Age were more than lavish displays of wealth for the American aristocracy c. 1870-1917, they supported the economy of the local communities and encouraged development. As they declined, many of the surrounding...
Pirate Weapons in the Golden Age of Piracy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Pirate Weapons in the Golden Age of Piracy

Pirates in the so-called Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1740) used all manner of weapons to attack ships and relieve them of their precious cargoes. Heavy cannons, muskets, pistols, cutlasses, and grenades were just some of the weapons pirates...
Treasure & Booty in the Golden Age of Piracy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Treasure & Booty in the Golden Age of Piracy

During the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730), pirates were first and foremost after gold, silver, and jewels, but if these could not be grabbed, then a ship’s cargo would be taken for resale at a pirate haven. Shared amongst the crew, the...
Pirate Clothing in the Golden Age of Piracy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Pirate Clothing in the Golden Age of Piracy

Pirates have gained a reputation for wearing bright and distinctive clothing and accessories during the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730) even if, in reality, most of what we think they wore comes from works of fiction like Robert Louis Stevenson’s...
Mycenaean Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mycenaean Civilization

The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the Late Bronze Age (c. 1700-1100 BCE), peaking from the 15th to the 13th century BCE. The Mycenaeans extended their influence throughout the Peloponnese in Greece and across the Aegean from Crete...
Pirate Havens in the Golden Age of Piracy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Pirate Havens in the Golden Age of Piracy

The buccaneers who roamed the Spanish Main and the pirates who plundered the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean during the Golden Age of Piracy (1690-1730) needed a place of refuge where they could share out and enjoy their loot. Pirate havens...
The Spice Trade & the Age of Exploration
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Spice Trade & the Age of Exploration

One of the major motivating factors in the European Age of Exploration was the search for direct access to the highly lucrative Eastern spice trade. In the 15th century, spices came to Europe via the Middle East land and sea routes, and spices...
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