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The ancient and medieval Mediterranean might have been a bustling stage of ever-changing empires but, across the inhospitable barrier of the Sahara Desert, West Africans were equally busy building up and toppling down their own kingdoms and empires. With wealth gained from vast herds of livestock, natural resources such as salt and gold, and control of trade routes, several states were able to conquer their less affluent and militarily-weaker neighbours to forge impressive empires. In this collection, we examine the big three of the Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, and Songhai Empire as well as the lucrative trade connections they made with West and North Africa. We also look at the important kingdoms of the southern coast of West Africa such as Nok, Benin, and Ife, and especially the art they produced which continues to wow museum visitors around the world. As the commercial tentacles of West African states extended so, too, they came under the influence of Islam as great trade cities arose like Timbuktu.
Through Timbuktu there passed such lucrative goods as ivory, textiles, horses (important for military use), glassware, weapons, sugar, kola nuts (a mild stimulant), cereals (e.g. sorghum and millet), spices, stone beads, craft products, and slaves. Goods were bartered for or paid using an agreed-upon commodity such as copper or gold ingots, set quantities of salt or ivory, or even cowry shells (which came from Persia).
About the Author
Mark is a full-time author, researcher, historian, and editor. Special interests include art, architecture, and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the WHE Publishing Director.
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License & Copyright
Uploaded by Mark Cartwright, published on 27 September 2019. The copyright holder has published this content under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. When republishing on the web a hyperlink back to the original content source URL must be included. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms.