Ancient Egyptian Gods

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Joshua J. Mark
published on 08 February 2024

The worship of Egyptian gods dates to the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c. 6000 to c. 3150 BCE) but is no doubt much older as the veneration of these deities was already established in rudimentary form through rock carvings dated to c. 6000 BCE, suggesting the gods were recognized before this time.

By the time of the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE), the Egyptian pantheon had developed further, and during the era of the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782), it was fully articulated, as evidenced by texts and artwork depicting the stories of the gods, which would reach their most complete expression during the New Kingdom (c. 1570 to c. 1069 BCE) through texts including the Egyptian Book of the Dead.

This collection presents twelve of the most important Egyptian gods, worshipped or at least acknowledged for their power, for over 6,000 years before the present Common Era. This list includes only male deities. Female deities are listed in the collection of Ancient Egyptian Goddesses.



Questions & Answers

How long were the gods of Egypt worshipped?

The gods of ancient Egypt were worshipped from c. 6000 BCE up through the 4th century CE.

What is the earliest evidence of the gods of ancient Egypt?

The earliest evidence of the gods of ancient Egypt is rock cuttings depicting deities c. 6000 BCE.

Who was the most powerful god in ancient Egypt?

Amun became the most powerful god in ancient Egypt, and his clergy became so wealthy that their power rivaled that of the king.

Who was the Egyptian judge of the dead?

Osiris was the Egyptian judge of the dead.
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About the Author

Joshua J. Mark
Joshua J. Mark is World History Encyclopedia's co-founder and Content Director. He was previously a professor at Marist College (NY) where he taught history, philosophy, literature, and writing. He has traveled extensively and lived in Greece and Germany.

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