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Old Kingdom of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613-2181 BCE) is also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza...
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which it produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom as some argue...
Old Dongola
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Old Dongola

Old Dongola (aka Dungulah or Dunkula), located in modern Sudan, was the capital of the ancient Nubian kingdom of Dongola (aka Makuria or Makurra) which flourished from the 6th to 14th century CE. A Christian kingdom for at least 750 years...
New Kingdom of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom (c. 1570- c.1069 BCE) is the era in Egyptian history following the disunity of the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570 BCE) and preceding the dissolution of the central government at the start of the Third Intermediate...
Kingdom of Axum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Axum

The African kingdom of Axum (also Aksum) was located on the northern edge of the highland zone of the Red Sea coast, just above the horn of Africa. It was founded in the 1st century CE, flourished from the 3rd to 6th century CE, and then...
The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths

Today, traveling an hour by ferry from Piraeus, the port of Athens, the first remnant of Aegina's great past a visitor will see is the lonely pillar of Apollo rising from the trees on the hill of Kolona. Once a splendid complex of three buildings...
Kingdom of Wessex
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Wessex

The Kingdom of Wessex (c. 519-927 CE or c. 519-1066 CE) was a political entity founded by the West Saxon Chieftain Cerdic (r. 519-540 CE) in 519 CE in the Upper Thames Valley of modern-day Britain which would later evolve into the modern...
The Kingdom of Kush
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Kingdom of Kush

Kush was a kingdom in northern Africa in the region corresponding to modern-day Sudan. The larger region around Kush (later referred to as Nubia) was inhabited c. 8,000 BCE but the Kingdom of Kush rose much later. The Kerma Culture, so named...
Kingdom of Abyssinia
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Abyssinia

The Kingdom of Abyssinia was founded in the 13th century CE and, transforming itself into the Ethiopian Empire via a series of military conquests, lasted until the 20th century CE. It was established by the kings of the Solomonid dynasty...
Kingdom of Mercia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Mercia

The Kingdom of Mercia (c. 527-879 CE) was an Anglo-Saxon political entity located in the midlands of present-day Britain and bordered on the south by the Kingdom of Wessex, on the west by Wales, north by Northumbria, and on the east by East...
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