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Ancient Egyptian Architecture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

Ancient Egyptian architecture is often associated closely with the pyramids of Giza but was actually quite diverse, taking a number of forms in the construction of administrative buildings, temples, tombs, palaces, and the private homes of...
Kingdom of Abyssinia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Abyssinia

The Kingdom of Abyssinia was founded in the 13th century CE and, transforming itself into the Ethiopian Empire via a series of military conquests, lasted until the 20th century CE. It was established by the kings of the Solomonid dynasty...
Ancient Egyptian Warfare
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Warfare

The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) conquering his enemies with the support and approval of his gods. This piece, dating from c. 3200-3000 BCE, was initially thought to...
The Kingdom of Kush
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Kingdom of Kush

Kush was a kingdom in northern Africa in the region corresponding to modern-day Sudan. The larger region around Kush (later referred to as Nubia) was inhabited c. 8,000 BCE but the Kingdom of Kush rose much later. The Kerma Culture, so named...
The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Island Kingdom of Aegina: The Old Gods Still Whisper Their Truths

Today, traveling an hour by ferry from Piraeus, the port of Athens, the first remnant of Aegina's great past a visitor will see is the lonely pillar of Apollo rising from the trees on the hill of Kolona. Once a splendid complex of three buildings...
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a state created in 1099 CE by Crusaders and western settlers after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). With Jerusalem as its capital, the kingdom was the most important of the four Crusader States in the Middle...
Kingdom of Nabatea
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Nabatea

The Nabatean Kingdom was a powerful political entity which flourished in the region of modern-day Jordan between the 4th century BCE and c. 106 CE and is best known today for the ruins of its capital city of Petra. Although it is clear that...
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE) is the era following the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) and preceding the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). As with all historical designations of the eras of Egyptian history, the...
Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt

In 1851 CE, a woman named Amelia Bloomer in the United States shocked the establishment by announcing in her publication The Lily that she had adopted the "Turkish Dress" for daily wear and, further, provided readers with instructions...
Kingdom of Luba
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Luba

The Kingdom of Luba, located in central Africa, thrived from the 15th to 19th century CE and was the first such state in the Congo basin. Skills in ironworking and trade along the Lualaba river in such metals as copper permitted the Luba...
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