Pergamon (also Pergamum) was a major intellectual and cultural center in Mysia (northwest Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) which flourished under the Attalid Dynasty (281-133 BCE) during the Hellenistic Period. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon and remained an important city for the Romans, Byzantines, and Ottoman Turks until its abandonment.

More about: Pergamon


  • 282 BCE - 263 BCE
    Philetaerus, founder of the Attalid Dynasty, governs Pergamon.
  • 263 BCE - 241 BCE
    Reign of Eumenes I at Pergamon.
  • 262 BCE
    Eumenes rebels and wins against the Seleucid Antiochus I. Beginning of the Pergamon Empire.
  • 241 BCE - 197 BCE
    Reign of Attalus I at Pergamon.
  • c. 237 BCE - 241 BCE
    Attalus I of Pergamon defeats the Galatians at the headwaters of the Caioc River.
  • 218 BCE
    The Aegosages Celts enter Anatolia under Attalos of Pergamon.
  • 197 BCE - 159 BCE
    Reign of Eumenes II at Pergamon.
  • 188 BCE
    Maximum extent of the Pergamon Empire after Apamea peace.
  • c. 188 BCE
    The treaty of Apamea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Empire and Rome joined by its allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
  • 187 BCE - 183 BCE
    The Attalids of Pergamon are at war with Bithynia.
  • 183 BCE - 179 BCE
    The Attalids of Pergamon are at war with Pontius.
  • 160 BCE - 138 BCE
    Reign of Attalus II at Pergamon.
  • 138 BCE - 133 BCE
    Reign of Attalus III at Pergamon.
  • 133 BCE
    Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathes the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
  • 133 BCE - 129 BCE
    Eumenes III ("The Pretender") claims title to the Attalid throne and rebels; defeated by Rome, the Kingdom of Pergamon falls.