Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean. The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. The Greeks called the city Karchedon and the Romans turned this name into Carthago.

More about: Carthage


  • c. 814 BCE
    Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Carthage by Tyre.
  • 580 BCE - 376 BCE
    Carthage and Greece fight for dominance in Sicily.
  • 540 BCE
    A joint Carthaginian and Cerveteri force wins the Battle of the Sardinian Sea against the Phocaeans.
  • 539 BCE
    Etruscan & Carthaginian alliance expels the Greeks from Corsica.
  • 535 BCE
    Battle of Alalia. Carthaginian navy, in alliance with Etruscans, defeated Greek ships off the island of Corsica.
  • 510 BCE - 509 BCE
    First treaty between Rome and Carthage.
  • 500 BCE
    Carthage expands into southern Spain.
  • 480 BCE
    Tyrant of Syracuse Gelon defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of Himera.
  • 480 BCE
    Agrigento defeats Carthage at the battle of Himera.
  • 406 BCE
    Agrigento is attacked and destroyed by Carthage.
  • 405 BCE
    Segesta comes under Carthaginian control.
  • 396 BCE
    The Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum is founded on Sicily.
  • c. 341 BCE
    Timoleon defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Crimisus in Sicily.
  • 338 BCE
    Timoleon agrees a peace treaty with Carthage over their control of Sicily.
  • 311 BCE
    A Carthaginian army defeats Agathocles of Syracuse near Gela, Sicily.
  • 310 BCE
    Agathocles of Syracuse lands an army of 14,000 in North Africa.
  • 309 BCE
    Syracuse defeats a Carthaginian army in Sicily and kills their general Hamilcar.
  • 309 BCE - 308 BCE
    Agathocles of Syracuse successfuly campaigns in North Africa defeating Carthaginian armies and taking Utica and Hippacra.
  • 307 BCE
    Carthage defeats the army of Agathocles of Syracuse led by Archagathus while Agathocles is in Sicily.
  • 306 BCE
    Carthage and Agathocles of Syracuse sign a peace treaty and divide Sicily between them.
  • 264 BCE
    The Mamertines at Messana on Sicily call for Carthaginian and then Roman help in defence against Syracuse, sparking the First Punic War.
  • 264 BCE - 241 BCE
    First Punic War. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome.
  • c. 263 BCE
    Antaros and 3000 Celts fight with Carthage in the First Punic War.
  • 256 BCE
    Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War.
  • 255 BCE - 253 BCE
    Roman fleets are wrecked by storms off Pachynus and Palinurus during the First Punic War.
  • 255 BCE
    Carthage sues for peace during the First Punic War but the Roman consul Regulus' excessive demands are rejected.
  • 255 BCE
    A Carthaginain army led by the mercenary Spartan commander Xanthippus defeats two Roman legions near Tunis during the First Punic War.
  • 249 BCE
    Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War.
  • 249 BCE
    Antaros withdraws his support from Carthage.
  • 247 BCE - 183 BCE
    Life of Hannibal.
  • 247 BCE
    Hamilcar Barca raids southern Italy and then lands on Sicily during the First Punic War.
  • 241 BCE - 238 BCE
    The rebellion of the mercenaries: Unpaid mercenaries under the leadership of Mathos and Spendios rebel against Carthage. Despite a peace treaty, Rome seizes the opportunity to strip Carthage of Sardinia and Corsica.
  • 237 BCE
    Hamilcar Barca arrives in southern Spain to expand Carthage's interests there. He makes his base at Gades and founds Acra Leuce.
  • 229 BCE
    Hasdrubal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
  • 226 BCE
    Hasdrubal signs an agreement with Rome not to cross the Ebro river in Spain.
  • 221 BCE
    Hannibal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
  • 219 BCE
    Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War.
  • Mar 218 BCE
    Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. The Second Punic War begins.
  • Apr 218 BCE - May 218 BCE
    Hannibal leaves Spain to cross the Pyrenees and Alps into Italy.
  • Nov 218 BCE
    Hannibal wins the battle of Ticinus.
  • Dec 218 BCE
    Hannibal wins the battle of Trebia.
  • Jun 217 BCE
    Hannibal wins the battle of Lake Trasimene.
  • 216 BCE
    "Hannibal ante portas." Hannibal directly threatens the city of Rome, but cannot advance due to lack of supplies and reinforcements.
  • Aug 216 BCE
    Hannibal wins the battle of Cannae, the worst defeat in Roman history.
  • 215 BCE
    A Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal is defeated at the battle of Ibera in Spain.
  • 212 BCE
    The Romans conquer Saguntum from the Carthaginians.
  • 212 BCE
    A Carthaginian army is defeated in Sicily by a Roman army led by Marcellus. Syracuse falls to Rome who now control the island.
  • 211 BCE
    A Carthaginian army defeats two Roman consuls and their armies in the Tader valley, Spain.
  • 209 BCE
    Scipio Africanus captures the Carthaginian base and treasury Carthago Nova in southern Spain.
  • 208 BCE
    Scipio Africanus defeats a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in Spain.
  • 206 BCE - 205 BCE
    The Romans conquer Gades. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • 206 BCE
    Scipio Africanus wins the battle of Ilipa in Spain.
  • 204 BCE - 203 BCE
    Scipio Africanus wins two battles and besieges Utica in North Africa.
  • 204 BCE
    Scipio Africanus sails to North Africa in the Second Punic War.
  • 203 BCE
    Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army is defeated in Cisalpine Gaul.
  • 203 BCE
    Scipio Africanus defeats a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal in North Africa.
  • 203 BCE
    Hannibal is recalled from Italy to defend Carthage against Scipio Africanus.
  • 202 BCE
    Hannibal flees to Hadrumentum after losing the battle of Zama.
  • 19 Oct 202 BCE
    Battle of Zama: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.
  • 195 BCE
    Facing the threat of being handed to the Romans after the Second Punic War, Hannibal flees to the Seleucid court of Antiochus III and becomes his advisor.
  • c. 183 BCE
    As an ambassador to the Hellenistic kingdom of Bithynia, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, the general who defeated Macedon, demands that Hannibal should be surrendered in Roman hands. As king Prusias gives in, Hannibal commits suicide in the village of Libyssa, in order to escape captivity. The Roman Senate did not approve of Flamininus' action.
  • 150 BCE
    A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War.
  • 149 BCE - 146 BCE
    Third Punic War.
  • 149 BCE
    Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage.
  • 148 BCE
    The Roman siege of Carthage, in its second year, remains unsuccessful.
  • 147 BCE
    Scipio Africanus the Younger takes over command of the siege of Carthage and builds a mole to block its harbour.
  • 146 BCE
    End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa.
  • 146 BCE
    Scipio Africanus the Younger sacks Carthage and enslaves its population.
  • 162 CE
    The Antonine Baths at Carthage are completed.