Umayyad Dynasty

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The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE), the first dynasty to take the title of Caliphate, was established in 661 CE by Muawiya (l. c. 602-680 CE), who had served as the governor of Syria under the Rashidun Caliphate, after the death of the fourth caliph, Ali in 661 CE. The Umayyads ruled effectively and firmly established the political authority of the Caliphate, rebellions were crushed with brute force, and no quarter was given to those who stirred uprisings.

More about: Umayyad Dynasty


  • 656 - 661
    The murder of Caliph Uthman causes the eruption of the First Fitna (civil war). Muawiya surfaces as a major opposer of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 661 - 750
    The Umayyad Dynasty rules the Islamic empire.
  • 661
    Muawiya, the governor of Syria, establishes the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 680 - 692
    The Second Fitna (second Islamic civil war).
  • 680
    Husayn's death marks the start of the second civil war of Islamic history (Second Fitna).
  • Oct 680
    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • 685
    Al-Mukhtar starts his revolt; he joins hands withe Abdullah ibn Zubayr.
  • 687
    Al-Mukhtar has a falling out with Abdullah, owing to his support to the Alid faction - he is killed by Zubayrid forces.
  • 711 - 714
    Conquest of most of Spain by the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 712
    Military conquests as far as the Beas river in parts of modern-day Pakistan by the Umayyad forces - under Muhammad ibn Qasim.
  • 713
    Successful annexation of modern-day Transoxiana by Qutayba ibn Muslim.
  • 715
    Sulayman rises to power; expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate is halted.
  • 717 - 718
    An unsuccessful attempt to take over Constantinople; after Sulayman's death, his successor Umar II calls back the forces.
  • 743 - 747
    The Third Fitna (civil war of the Islamic empire): Marwan II emerges as the victor.
  • 750
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 - 788
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.