Umayyad Dynasty Timeline

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  • 656 - 661
    The murder of Caliph Uthman causes the eruption of the First Fitna (civil war). Muawiya surfaces as a major opposer of the Rashidun Caliphate.
  • 661 - 750
    The Umayyad Dynasty rules the Islamic empire.
  • 661
    Muawiya, the governor of Syria, establishes the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 680 - 692
    The Second Fitna (second Islamic civil war).
  • 680
    Husayn's death marks the start of the second civil war of Islamic history (Second Fitna).
  • Oct 680
    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
  • 685
    Al-Mukhtar starts his revolt; he joins hands withe Abdullah ibn Zubayr.
  • 687
    Al-Mukhtar has a falling out with Abdullah, owing to his support to the Alid faction - he is killed by Zubayrid forces.
  • 711 - 714
    Conquest of most of Spain by the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 712
    Military conquests as far as the Beas river in parts of modern-day Pakistan by the Umayyad forces - under Muhammad ibn Qasim.
  • 713
    Successful annexation of modern-day Transoxiana by Qutayba ibn Muslim.
  • 715
    Sulayman rises to power; expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate is halted.
  • 717 - 718
    An unsuccessful attempt to take over Constantinople; after Sulayman's death, his successor Umar II calls back the forces.
  • 743 - 747
    The Third Fitna (civil war of the Islamic empire): Marwan II emerges as the victor.
  • 750
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 756
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 - 788
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.