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Tyre (in modern-day Lebanon) is one of the oldest cities in the world, dating back over 4,000 years, during which it has been inhabited almost continuously. It was one of the most important, and at times the dominant, city of Phoenicia, whose citizens claimed it had been founded by the great god Melqart.

More about: Tyre


  • c. 2750 BCE
    The city of Tyre is founded.
  • c. 1200 BCE - c. 800 BCE
    First wave of Phoenician colonization where largely trading-posts are founded throughout the Mediterranean.
  • 1100 BCE - 725 BCE
    Decline of Byblos as the sister city of Tyre rises in prominence.
  • c. 1000 BCE
    Height of Tyre's power.
  • 969 BCE - 936 BCE
    Hiram I reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 935 BCE - 919 BCE
    Baal-eser I reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 918 BCE - 910 BCE
    Abdastrato reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 909 BCE - 898 BCE
    Methustratos reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 897 BCE - 889 BCE
    Astharymos reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 888 BCE
    Phelles reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 887 BCE - 856 BCE
    Ithobaal I reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 855 BCE - 830 BCE
    Baal-asor II reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 829 BCE - 821 BCE
    Mattan II rules as king of Tyre.
  • 820 BCE - 774 BCE
    Pygmalion rules as king of Tyre.
  • c. 814 BCE
    Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Carthage by Tyre.
  • c. 800 BCE - 600 BCE
    Second stage of Phoenician colonization where trading-posts become full colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
  • 750 BCE - 740 BCE
    Ithobaal II reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 739 BCE - 730 BCE
    Hiram II reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 730 BCE - 729 BCE
    Mattan II rules as king of Tyre.
  • 729 BCE - 694 BCE
    Elulaios rules as king of Tyre.
  • 680 BCE - 640 BCE
    Baal I reigns as king of Tyre.
  • 586 BCE - 572 BCE
    Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon besieges Tyre, unsuccessfully.
  • 585 BCE
    Nebuchadnezzar's armies destroy the Phoenician settlement at Tel Kabri.
  • 332 BCE
    Conquest of the Levant by Alexander the Great who destroys Tyre.
  • Jan 332 BCE - Jul 332 BCE
    Alexander the Great besieges and conquers Tyre.
  • c. 301 BCE - c. 195 BCE
    Tyre, as all other Phoenician cities, belongs to the Ptolemies, rulers of hellenistic Egypt.
  • c. 195 BCE
    After the battle at Panion, the Seleucids finally take the rule of Phoenicia from the Ptolemies. Tyre and the other Phoenician cities will remain in the Seleucid power until the Roman conquest of Syria.
  • 195 BCE
    Facing the threat of being handed to the Romans after the Second Punic War, Hannibal flees to the Seleucid court of Antiochus III and becomes his advisor.
  • 64 BCE
    Tyre becomes a Roman colony.