Old Dongola


Old Dongola (aka Dungulah or Dunkula), located in modern Sudan, was the capital of the ancient Nubian kingdom of Dongola (aka Makuria or Makurra) which flourished from the 6th to 14th century CE. A Christian kingdom for at least 750 years and then Muslim after incursions by the Mamluks of Egypt in the early 14th century CE, Dongola prospered thanks to agriculture and trade relations with the Byzantine Empire via Egypt and African kingdoms to the south and east. Today, Old Dongola's ruined stone churches and royal palace leave a tantalising record of the wealth this mysterious desert kingdom once enjoyed. It is not to be confused with the modern Sudanese city of Dongola, which is located some 160 km (100 miles) to the northwest.

More about: Old Dongola


  • c. 500 CE - c. 1365 CE
    The Nubian kingdom of Dongola flourishes in the Sudan.
  • c. 540 CE
    Traditional date that the Kingdom of Dongola adopts Christianity.
  • c. 652 CE
    A non-aggression and trade treaty is signed between the Kingdom of Dongola and Egypt.
  • c. 697 CE
    The Kingdom of Dongola absorbs or unifies with the two neighbouring Christian kingdoms of Faras (Nobatia) and Alodia.
  • c. 1002 CE
    A large palace is built at Dongola, capital of the Nubian kingdom of that name.
  • 1276 CE
    The Mamluks of Egypt attack the Nubian kingdom of Dongola.
  • 1315 CE
    The Mamluks of Egypt install a Muslim puppet ruler in the Nubian kingdom of Dongola.
  • 1317 CE
    The cathedral of Dongola is converted into a mosque.
  • c. 1365 CE
    The Kingdom of Dongola moves its capital from Dongola to Daw.