Mesopotamian Warfare


Ancient Mesopotamian warfare progressed from companies of a city's militia in Sumer to the professional standing armies of Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, and Persia and from conflicts over land or water rights to wars of conquest and political supremacy. Developments in weaponry, training, and tactics made the armies of Mesopotamia among the most effective in the ancient world.

More about: Mesopotamian Warfare


  • 2900 BCE - 2334 BCE
    Warfare rages between Sumerian city-states during the Early Dynastic Period.
  • c. 2700 BCE
    First recorded war in history between Sumer and Elam; Sumer wins.
  • c. 2600 BCE
    Stele of the Vultures monument celebrates victory of Lagash over Umma.
  • c. 2500 BCE
    Oldest helmet in the world - the "Golden Wig" - worn by Sumerian commander.
  • 2334 BCE - 2279 BCE
    Sargon of Akkad reforms the military, disbands militias, and creates a professional standing army.
  • 2047 BCE - 1750 BCE
    The kings of the Ur III Period build on Sargon's military model.
  • 1792 BCE - 1750 BCE
    Hammurabi of Babylon uses Sargon's military model to conquer Mesopotamia.
  • c. 1307 BCE - 612 BCE
    The Assyrian Empire conquers and then rules Mesopotamia.
  • c. 550 BCE - 330 BCE
    The Achaemenid Empire conquers and rules Mesopotamia.